No William Morris didn't design this 18th century simulacrum - it's "a microscopic image of lung surfactant, a lipid-protein material that aids in respiration by reducing the amount of energy needed". And it's elegantly fantastic.

In a recent issue of BioMedical Beat, authors Prajnaparamita Dhar, Elizabeth Eck, Jacob N. Israelachvili, Dong Woog Lee, Younjin Min, Arun Ramachandran, Alan J. Waring, and Joseph A. Zasadzinski presented a paper about a lung surfactant (mixture of lipids and proteins) that helps reduce the amount of energy required to reinflate the lungs. Pictured above, is what happens to the surfactant when carbon nanoparticles are inhaled. Check the article itself for some polka-dotted examples.

From the issue's summary:

Using microscopy techniques, the researchers captured a snapshot of the changes that occur (black) when surfactant molecules are stressed by carbon nanoparticles. The scientists found that if inhaled, carbon nanoparticles could influence the function of the main lipid component of surfactant. A likely gateway for nanoparticles to enter the body is through the lungs, so this and future studies may help scientists improve drug delivery methods.

Shockingly close to Victorian wallpaper (I mean really: look what this Google Image Search turns up), it's an image worth a thousand sciart graphic designs, or one really big roll of birthday wrap. Perhaps examples of this phenomena should to be added to a future BodyWorlds exhibit with appropriately Victorian-kitsch microscopes.

(A hat tip to Scope Medical Blog who smartly featured this as their Image of the Week. It makes me so happy a medical blog has an image of the week.)