Earth’s mammals are being eaten into extinction. A massive study published recently in the journal Royal Society Open Science takes a deep dive into the worldwide wildlife trade and identifies the 301 mammal species most at risk from overhunting.

The species, which are typically eaten for food or for their purported medicinal qualities, include tigers, several medium-sized cats, 126 species of primates, all eight species of pangolins, dozens of ungulate species, more than 20 species of bats, several kangaroos, four species of rhinos, and a long list of rodents. Only 2 percent of these species have stable or increasing populations, according to the paper.

As the authors wrote, this is a much bigger story than just the 301 mammal species. It’s also about the cascading effect of the loss of these animals on their native ecosystems. For example, when large predator species disappear, the populations of their former prey animals explode, creating consequences for other animals and vegetation. Beyond that, these impending extinctions also affect human food security, economic livelihoods, and even the transmission of zoonotic diseases.

The picture presented by this paper is admittedly bleak, but it ends on a hopeful note with a list of five conservation actions that could help turn all of this around. Those include improving legal protections for wildlife, empowering local communities to benefit from wildlife conservation, providing alternative sources of food, and increasing education and family planning to lower human birth rates, especially in rural areas.

There is little doubt that wild-caught meat provides an essential element to human nutrition in many areas around the world. What is also clear, however, is that current hunting for all of these species exists at unsustainable levels. Left unchecked, it could lead to ecological collapse in some of the areas of the world least able to adapt. That would spell doom not just for the animals, but also the people who surround them.

Below, you can find the full list of the 301 mammal species identified by the paper as being the most at risk. You can also browse the Extinction Countdown archive for stories on quite a few of these species.

Abbott's Duiker

Cephalophus spadix


Addax nasomaculatus

Addra Gazelle

Nanger dama

Aders' Duiker

Cephalophus adersi

African Ass

Equus africanus

African White-bellied Pangolin

Phataginus tricuspis

Alaotran Gentle Lemur

Hapalemur alaotrensis

Alpine Musk Deer

Moschus chrysogaster

Alpine Wallaby

Thylogale calabyi

Alpine Woolly Rat

Mallomys gunung

Andean Bear

Tremarctos ornatus

Andean Cat

Leopardus jacobita

Andean Hairy Armadillo

Chaetophractus nationi

Andean Titi Monkey

Callicebus oenanthe

Anhui Musk Deer

Moschus anhuiensis

Ankarana Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur ankaranensis


Bubalus depressicornis


Ammotragus lervia

Arfak Ringtail

Pseudochirulus schlegeli

Arnhold's Mouse Lemur

Microcebus arnholdi

Asian Tapir

Tapirus indicus

Asiatic Black Bear

Ursus thibetanus

Attenborough's Echidna

Zaglossus attenboroughi

Audebert's Brown Lemur

Eulemur rufus


Daubentonia madagascariensis

Bactrian Camel

Camelus ferus

Baird's Tapir

Tapirus bairdii

Balabac Chevrotain

Tragulus nigricans

Bald-headed Uacari

Cacajao calvus

Bamboo Lemur

Hapalemur griseus

Banded Duiker

Cephalophus zebra

Banks Flying Fox

Pteropus fundatus


Bos javanicus


Rucervus duvaucelii

Bay Colobus

Procolobus badius

Bear Cuscus

Ailurops ursinus

Bear Macaque

Macaca arctoides

Bearded Pig

Sus barbatus

Bearded Saki

Chiropotes satanas

Betsileo Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur betsileo


Capra aegagrus

Biak Spotted Cuscus

Spilocuscus wilsoni

Black Colobus

Colobus satanas

Black Crested Gibbon

Nomascus concolor

Black Crested Macaque

Macaca nigra

Black Howling Monkey

Alouatta pigra

Black Lemur

Eulemur macaco

Black Musk Deer

Moschus fuscus

Black Rhinoceros

Diceros bicornis

Black Snub-nosed Monkey

Rhinopithecus bieti

Black Spider Monkey

Ateles paniscus

Black Tree-kangaroo

Dendrolagus ursinus

Black-and-white Ruffed Lemur

Varecia variegata

Black-bearded Flying Fox

Pteropus melanopogon

Black-bellied Pangolin

Phataginus tetradactyla

Black-faced Black Spider Monkey

Ateles chamek

Black-faced Lion Tamarin

Leontopithecus caissara

Black-footed Gray Langur

Semnopithecus hypoleucos

Black-headed Spider Monkey

Ateles fusciceps

Black-headed Uacari

Cacajao hosomi

Black-shanked Douc

Pygathrix nigripes

Black-spotted Cuscus

Spilocuscus rufoniger

Black-tailed Hutia

Mysateles melanurus

Blonde Capuchin

Cebus flavius

Blue-eyed Black Lemur

Eulemur flavifrons

Bongolava Mouse Lemur

Microcebus bongolavensis


Pan paniscus

Bougainville Giant Rat

Solomys salebrosus

Bougainville Monkey-faced Bat

Pteralopex anceps

Bouvier's Red Colobus

Procolobus pennantii

Brazilian Tapir

Tapirus terrestris

Brazilian Three-banded Armadillo

Tolypeutes tricinctus

Broad-nosed Gentle Lemur

Prolemur simus

Brow-antlered Deer

Rucervus eldii

Brown's Hutia

Geocapromys brownii

Buff-cheeked Gibbon

Nomascus gabriellae

Buff-headed Capuchin

Cebus xanthosternos

Buffy Saki

Pithecia albicans

Bulmer's Fruit Bat

Aproteles bulmerae

Burmese Snub-nosed Monkey

Rhinopithecus strykeri

Calamanian Deer

Axis calamianensis

Cape Pangolin

Smutsia temminckii

Capped Gibbon

Hylobates pileatus

Caroline Flying Fox

Pteropus molossinus

Carolines Fruit Bat

Pteropus insularis

Cat Ba Langur

Trachypithecus poliocephalus

Ceram Fruit Bat

Pteropus ocularis

Chacoan Peccary

Catagonus wagneri

Chapman's Prehensile-tailed Hutia

Mysateles gundlachi

Chilean Pudu

Pudu puda


Pan troglodytes

Chinese Forest Musk Deer

Moschus berezovskii

Chinese Goral

Naemorhedus caudatus

Chinese Goral

Naemorhedus griseus

Chinese Pangolin

Manis pentadactyla

Chinese Pinyin

Lepus hainanus

Chinese Water Deer

Hydropotes inermis

Clouded Leopard

Neofelis nebulosa

Collared Brown Lemur

Eulemur collaris

Collared Mangabey

Cercocebus torquatus

Colombian Woolly Monkey

Lagothrix lugens

Common Gibbon

Hylobates lar

Common Hippopotamus

Hippopotamus amphibius

Coquerel's Sifaka

Propithecus coquereli

Crowned Lemur

Eulemur coronatus

Cusp-toothed Flying Fox

Pteralopex atrata

Cuvier's Gazelle

Gazella cuvieri

Cuvier's Hutia

Plagiodontia aedium

Cyprian Wild Sheep

Ovis orientalis

Danfoss' Mouse Lemur

Microcebus danfossi

Daraina Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur milanoii

Delacour's Langur

Trachypithecus delacouri

Diana Guenon

Cercopithecus diana


Dendrolagus mbaiso

Dorcas Gazelle

Gazella dorcas

Doria's Tree Kangaroo

Dendrolagus dorianus

Dryad Monkey

Cercopithecus dryas

Dumoga-bone Macaque

Macaca nigrescens

Dusky Pademelon

Thylogale brunii

Dwarf Gibbon

Hylobates klossii

Eared Hutia

Mesocapromys auritus

Eastern Hoolock

Hoolock leuconedys

Eastern Long-beaked Echidna

Zaglossus bartoni

Ebony Leaf Monkey

Trachypithecus auratus

Fleurete's Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur fleuretae

Francois's Langur

Trachypithecus francoisi


Bos gaurus

Gebe Cuscus

Phalanger alexandrae

Geelvink Bay Flying Fox

Pteropus pohlei

Geoffroy's Black-and-white Colobus

Colobus vellerosus

Geoffroy's Peruvian Woolly Monkey

Lagothrix cana

Germains Langur

Trachypithecus germaini

Gerp's Mouse Lemur

Microcebus gerpi

Giant Armadillo

Priodontes maximus

Giant Bandicoot

Peroryctes broadbenti

Giant Bushy-tailed Cloud Rat

Crateromys schadenbergi

Giant Ground Pangolin

Smutsia gigantea

Giant Muntjac

Muntiacus vuquangensis

Goitered Gazelle

Gazella subgutturosa

Golden-capped Fruit Bat

Acerodon jubatus

Golden-crowned Sifaka

Propithecus tattersalli

Golden-mantled Tree Kangaroo

Dendrolagus pulcherrimus

Goodfellow's Tree Kangaroo

Dendrolagus goodfellowi

Gray Dorcopsis

Dorcopsis luctuosa

Gray Leaf Monkey

Presbytis hosei

Gray’s Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur dorsalis

Gray-shanked Douc Langur

Pygathrix cinerea

Greater Monkey-faced Bat

Pteralopex flanneryi

Greater One-horned Rhino

Rhinoceros unicornis

Grewcock's Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur grewcockorum

Grey Ox

Bos sauveli

Grey-headed Lemur

Eulemur cinereiceps

Grizzled Leaf Monkey

Presbytis comata

Grizzled Tree Kangaroo

Dendrolagus inustus

Hainan Black Crested Gibbon

Nomascus hainanus

Hairy-eared Dwarf Lemur

Allocebus trichotis

Hamlyns Monkey

Cercopithecus hamlyni

Hatinh Langur

Trachypithecus hatinhensis

Hawks' Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur tymerlachsoni

Himalayan Field Mouse

Apodemus gurkha

Himalayan Muskdeer

Moschus leucogaster


Beatragus hunteri

Hog Deer

Axis porcinus

Holland's Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur hollandorum

Hoolock Gibbon

Hoolock hoolock

Hubbard's Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur hubbardorum

Humes Rat

Hadromys humei

Huon Tree Kangaroo

Dendrolagus matschiei


Gazella gazella

Ifola tree-kangaroo

Dendrolagus notatus

Indian Pangolin

Manis crassicaudata

Indonesian Porcupine

Hystrix pumila


Indri indri

James' Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur jamesorum

Javan Deer

Rusa timorensis

Javan Pig

Sus verrucosus

Javan Rhinoceros

Rhinoceros sondaicus

Jentink's Duiker

Cephalophus jentinki

Johnston's Genet

Genetta johnstoni

Jolly's Mouse Lemur

Microcebus jollyae

Kafue mole-rat

Fukomys kafuensis

Kashmir Muskdeer

Moschus cupreus

King Colobus

Colobus polykomos

Lao Langur

Trachypithecus laotum

Laotian Rock Rat

Laonastes aenigmamus

Large-spotted Civet

Viverra megaspila

Lesser Slow Loris

Nycticebus pygmaeus

Lesser Weasel Lemur

Lepilemur ruficaudatus

Liberian Mongoose

Liberiictis kuhni

Light-necked Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur microdon

Lion-tailed Macaque

Macaca silenus

Little Celebes Cuscus

Strigocuscus celebensis

Little Earth Hutia

Mesocapromys sanfelipensis

Long-beaked Echidna

Zaglossus bruijnii

Long-haired Spider Monkey

Ateles belzebuth

Long-tailed Langur

Presbytis potenziani

Lowland Gorilla

Gorilla gorilla

Maclaud's Horseshoe Bat

Rhinolophus maclaudi

Madagascan Flying Fox

Pteropus rufus

Madagascan Fruit Bat

Eidolon dupreanum

Makira Flying Fox

Pteropus cognatus

Malayan Pangolin

Manis javanica

Malayan Sun Bear

Helarctos malayanus

Manado Fruit-bat

Rousettus bidens


Mandrillus sphinx

Marbled Cat

Pardofelis marmorata

Marianas Flying Fox

Pteropus mariannus


Capra falconeri

Marsh Deer

Blastocerus dichotomus

Masoala Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur scottorum

Masoala Woolly Lemur

Avahi mooreorum

Milne-edward's Sifaka

Propithecus edwardsi

Mittermeier's Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur mittermeieri

Mongolian Saiga

Saiga tatarica

Mountain Anoa

Bubalus quarlesi

Mountain Nyala

Tragelaphus buxtoni

Mountain Pademelon

Thylogale lanatus


Brachyteles arachnoides

Namdapha Flying Squirrel

Biswamoyopterus biswasi

Negros Naked-backed Fruit Bat

Dobsonia chapmani

New Guinea Pademelon

Thylogale browni

Nilgiri Tahr

Nilgiritragus hylocrius

Northern Glider

Petaurus abidi

Northern Hydromyine

Paraleptomys rufilatus

Northern Muriqui

Brachyteles hypoxanthus

Northern Pig-tailed Macaque

Macaca leonina

Northern White-cheeked Gibbon

Nomascus leucogenys

Nubian Ibex

Capra nubiana

Ornate Flying Fox

Pteropus ornatus

Owston's Banded Palm Civet

Chrotogale owstoni

Pagai Island Macaque

Macaca pagensis

Palawan Bearded Pig

Sus ahoenobarbus

Palawan Flying Fox

Acerodon leucotis

Peruvian Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey

Oreonax flavicauda

Phayre's Langur

Trachypithecus phayrei

Philippine Brown Deer

Rusa marianna

Philippine Pangolin

Manis culionensis

Philippine Warty Pig

Sus philippensis

Phillipine Spotted Deer

Rusa alfredi

Pig-tailed Langur

Simias concolor

Poeppig's Woolly Monkey

Lagothrix poeppigii

Poncelet's Giant Rat

Solomys ponceleti

Preuss's Guenon

Cercopithecus preussi

Preuss's Red Colobus

Procolobus preussi

Reclusive Ringtail

Pseudochirops coronatus

Red Goral

Naemorhedus baileyi

Red Slender Loris

Loris tardigradus

Red-capped Monkey

Cercocebus atys

Red-eared Guenon

Cercopithecus erythrotis

Red-fronted Gazelle

Eudorcas rufifrons

Red-ruffed Lemur

Varecia rubra

Red-shanked Douc

Pygathrix nemaeus

Rennell Flying Fox

Pteropus rennelli


Gazella leptoceros

Ring-tailed Lemur

Lemur catta

Roatan Island Agouti

Dasyprocta ruatanica

Sahamalaza Peninsula Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur sahamalazensis

Salim Ali's Fruit Bat

Latidens salimalii


Rusa unicolor

Sambirano Lesser Bamboo Lemur

Hapalemur occidentalis

Sanje Crested Mangabey

Cercocebus sanjei


Pseudoryx nghetinhensis

Scott's Tree-kangaroo

Dendrolagus scottae

Seal's Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur seali

Seris Tree Kangaroo

Dendrolagus stellarum

Shortridges Capped Langur

Trachypithecus shortridgei

Siau Island Tarsier

Tarsius tumpara

Siberian Musk Deer

Moschus moschiferus

Siberut Macaque

Macaca siberu

Silky Sifaka

Propithecus candidus

Sloth Bear

Melursus ursinus

Soemmerring's Gazelle

Nanger soemmerringii

Southern Giant Slender-tailed Cloud Rat

Phloeomys cumingi

Southern White-cheeked Gibbon

Nomascus siki

Sulawesi Babirusa

Babyrousa celebensis

Sulawesi Giant Squirrel

Rubrisciurus rubriventer

Sulawesi Harpy Fruit Bat

Harpyionycteris celebensis

Sumatran Rhinoceros

Dicerorhinus sumatrensis

Sunda Flying-fox

Acerodon mackloti


Budorcas taxicolor

Talaud Acerodon

Acerodon humilis

Talaud Bear Cuscus

Ailurops melanotis

Telefomin Cuscus

Phalanger matanim

Temminck's Flying Fox

Pteropus temminckii

Thorold's Deer

Cervus albirostris


Panthera tigris

Tonkean Black Macaque

Macaca tonkeana

Tonkin Snub-nosed Monkey

Rhinopithecus avunculus

Tufted Ground Squirrel

Rheithrosciurus macrotis

Udzungwa Red Colobus

Procolobus gordonorum

Uta Hick's Bearded Saki

Chiropotes utahickae

Visayan Warty Pig

Sus cebifrons

West Caucasian Tur

Capra caucasica

White-cheeked Spider Monkey

Ateles marginatus

White-faced Langur

Presbytis frontata

White-fronted Brown Lemur

Eulemur albifrons

White-lipped Peccary

Tayassu pecari

Wild Yak

Bos mutus

Wondiwoi Tree-kangaroo

Dendrolagus mayri

Wright's Sportive Lemur

Lepilemur wrightae

Yap Flying Fox

Pteropus yapensis