ADVERTISEMENT
  About the SA Blog Network













The Thoughtful Animal

The Thoughtful Animal


Exploring the evolution and architecture of the mind
The Thoughtful Animal Home

Ethics at the Zoo: The Case of Marius the Giraffe

The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.


Email   PrintPrint



Last weekend, a healthy juvenile male reticulated giraffe at the Copenhagen Zoo was killed. His name was Marius. The reason given was that his genes were already sufficiently represented in the giraffe population across the zoos of the European Association of Zoos and Aquariums (EAZA) – his brother lives in a zoo in England, for example – making him a so-called “surplus animal.” Despite the international outcry against it, the giraffe was euthanized, a necropsy was performed by scientists while educators explained the dissection to the gathered crowd, and hunks of meat were fed to the zoo’s lions, polar bears, and other carnivores.

The event reveals an ethical dilemma that rests at the core of zoo management: what tradeoffs are acceptable when it comes to animal welfare? (There are those who would rather zoos not exist at all; for the sake of this ethical exercise, we’ll leave that conversation for another time.)

The reality is that zoos have an obligation to manage their populations as sustainably as possible, and that includes avoiding overpopulation and preventing inbreeding. Zoos operate at what is called “carrying capacity,” which is the upper limit on the number of individual animals for any particular species that a given amount of space can sustain. In the wild, the carrying capacity of a geographic area is defined by the territory needs of individuals, and the amount of food and water available to sustain them. In a zoo, in addition to space, other limiting factors include the time available to care for animals and to maximize their welfare by keepers, curators, and veterinarians, and cost. And welfare is about more than just avoiding illness, injury, or boredom. As Terry Maple and David Bocian wrote in the journal Zoo Biology in 2013, promoting welfare is about “the effort to reach a higher plane of satisfaction, essentially techniques to improve the quality of life from good to great.” Preventing overpopulation is, in part, how zoos can maximize the physical and psychological health of each animal; preventing inbreeding is how zoos can maximize the genetic health of each population.

In the earliest days of the modern zoological park, zoos did not have this problem. The problem, instead, was just keeping animals alive. When animals died, new animals had to be caught from the wild to replace them. In the intervening decades our ethics have evolved (in the vast majority of cases, wild animals are no longer imported to zoos), our scientific understanding of reproductive physiology and veterinary medicine have grown by leaps and bounds, and best practices for husbandry and management have improved. As a result, in many cases, we now face the challenge of limiting population growth.

The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), which oversees the Species Survival Plans for over 500 species in North American zoos, and other organizations like it (such as the EAZA, of which the Copenhagen Zoo is a member) achieve this through developing population management plans.

These plans consider the available space and resources that each participating zoo has in order to determine how many individuals of each sex and age class can receive adequate care. Combined with information about the genetic lineage of each individual animal, they can develop breeding recommendations. With luck, those pairs who have been matched will take to eachother and produce offspring.

How can zoos prevent individuals who have not been given a breeding recommendation from producing offspring? There are several approaches: they can be housed in a single-sex enclosure if appropriate for the species, they can receive contraception, they can be permanently sterilized, or if there is no space for the animals, they can be transferred to other institutions, or they can be euthanized. Some zoos instead will allow for breeding between non-recommended pairs, but that leaves them with the problem of what to do when the offspring themselves grow to reproductive age.

Each of those approaches comes with positive outcomes as well as tradeoffs with respect to animal welfare.

Starting with the simplest, the issue with permanent sterilization is that, in most cases, it’s permanent. While a given animal might not get a breeding recommendation this year, they might next year. Or, perhaps they successfully reproduce but the juvenile doesn’t him- or herself survive to breeding age, making it preferable to reintroduce the parent into the gene pool. While sterilization addresses the inbreeding problem, it doesn’t address the overpopulation problem.

The problem with transferring the individuals to other institutions – whether that’s an animal who hasn’t been recommended for breeding, or a “surplus” animal who is the result of a non-recommended mating, is also fairly straightforward. Having cared for an individual animal since birth, one might argue that zoos are collectively responsible for the animal’s welfare for the duration of its life. To that end, animals should only be transferred to places that can provide adequately for their health and welfare, which includes appropriate socialization (for social species, like giraffes). In fact, it is a violation of AZA’s Code of Professional Ethics to transfer animals to inadequate facilities.

What happens if there is no space to hold and care for an animal, and there are no suitable alternative facilities? Some would argue that it is better to euthanize the animal than to send it to a facility where the quality of its life would suffer. As Ingrid J. Porton points out in Wildlife Contraception, “there are records of transferred zoo-bred mammals from big cats, lemurs, and chimpanzees to a range of ungulate species that have eventually reached roadside animal attractions, circuses, for-profit animal breeding facilities, exotic animal auctions, and the pet trade.” And that’s to say nothing of any progeny that transferred animal might have in the future. Should length of life be privileged over quality of life? Should length of life be privileged over the uncertain quality of life of potential descendents? Is it better to provide a humane death for an animal when the only alternative would find the animal in a circus or in the backyard of a wealthy private citizen?

Assuming that there is space to keep a non-breeding animal, contraception might be a better approach. Unlike sterilization, contraception is meant to be reversible. But the issue is that in most cases and for most species, contraception is still considered experimental. Long-term research on the safety and toxicity of hormonal contraception is still ongoing. And for some species, it isn’t clear yet whether an animal can become pregnant and give birth to viable offspring after months or years of contraceptive administration. “Without conclusive data on the consequences of contraceptive use in all species, the ethical dilemma becomes whether the possibility of health risks associated with contraceptive use is outweighed by the benefit of not separating animals or of not producing surplus animals,” Porton writes. Could the contraceptives result in side effects that could shorten the life of an animal, or in illness? Is that an acceptable risk to take when the alternative is producing offspring for which the zoos within a given network can’t provide? When some risk is inevitable no matter what approach is taken, is a known risk to the parents preferable to an unspecified gamble on the welfare of future unplanned progeny?

Another downside to contraception, according to some, is that it deprives animals of expressing behaviors related to mating, reproduction, and parenting. They argue that if zoos endeavour to allow the animals in their care to express the widest range of species-typical behaviors as possible, that necessarily includes breeding. That mating and raising young is a “fundamental and enriching part of life,” as Porton puts it. She continues, “this view holds that all social aspects of mating and rearing offspring are of overriding importance to the well-being of captive animals and to prevent this experience could be considered unethical.” For institutions that have adopted this philosophy, animals are not contracepted and social species are housed in mixed-species enclosures. If there are offspring born from individuals whose genes are already well-represented in the population, then when the offspring is old enough that it would naturally disperse from its mother’s social group, as was the case with the Copenhagen Zoo giraffe, then the zoo must decide what to do with that individual.

Here lies the critical tradeoff at the heart of the controversy surrounding the death of Marius at the Copenhagen Zoo.

On the one hand, those against the killing argue that the welfare of the animal in question (Marius) is of paramount importance. They might offer that contraception would have been a better alternative to prevent his birth in the first place, but that once he was born, the zoo has an obligation to continue caring for him, even if he is a so-called “surplus animal.” They might argue that he could be contracepted or sterilized to prevent him from breeding and further propogating his genetic materials. Each of those arguments, of course, has its own downside as described above.

On the other hand, advocates for humane euthanasia argue that the welfare of the parents is of greater importance. They point out that the euthanasia would only occur once the juvenile has aged to the point where it would normally seek out a new social group anyway. From the parents’ perspective, euthanizing their progeny (outside of their view) is not functionally different from relocating the animal to a different social group in a different institution. And if there’s no space to care for the juvenile at a different zoo, or if that space would be better used by an individual with a different genetic endowment, then it may actually be preferable to euthanize the animal, while deriving as much educational and scientific benefit from the process as possible.

In addition, advocates for this position would point out a silver lining, which is that the carcass can then be broken down and used to feed the carnivores. Thus, the giraffe would enjoy maximal welfare while alive, an entirely humane death, and the lions, tigers, and other carnivores, for whom intact carcass meat itself serves as an enrichment item, would enjoy improved psychological welfare and dental health, as research repeatedly demonstrates. It’s worth pointing out that, as obligate carnivores, big cats can only survive by eating meat. If the remains of Marius were not fed to them, then they would simply be fed with meat derived from the slaughter of other animals. And you can be sure that the life and death of the Marius the giraffe reflected greater welfare concerns than the factory-farmed animals who wind up in the chow served more routinely at the zoo.

By definition, zoos are an imperfect system insofar as they can not care for an infinitely increasing population and it would be irresponsible to allow it to do so. But that’s not to say that nature, red in tooth and claw, is any less imperfect. A giraffe in the wild who is too weak, or too slow, or injured, will be taken down by a hungry lion, with no regard for the welfare interests of its meal, nor for the rest the giraffe’s social group who bear witness to that predation. No natural ecosystem can support an infinitely increasing population any more than the artificial ecosystem created by a network of zoos, and without the selective pressure offered by predation, starvation, or drought, zoos must restrict population growth by other means.

For those who are horrified by the idea of Marius’s euthanasia, I would ask what alternative they would choose, given the risks and downsides associated with each. And for those who supported the euthanasia, I would ask whether the parents’ ability to experience mating and parenting behaviors was worth the uncomfortable outcome for the juvenile.

The answer to these questions is not something that science is equipped address. Science can only describe the various alternatives and what the consequences of those decisions would be. The hard part is weighing the variables and deciding what the most optimal outcome would be, from a set of imperfect choices.

Further reading:
Re-Writing the Death of a Giraffe
Why Did Copenhagen Zoo Kill Marius the Giraffe? Cultural Differences in Conservation

Header image and second image: Masai Giraffe, San Diego Zoo. Third image: Masai Giraffe, Los Angeles Zoo. All photos copyright Jason G. Goldman.

Jason G. Goldman About the Author: Dr. Jason G. Goldman received his Ph.D. in Developmental Psychology at the University of Southern California, where he studied the evolutionary and developmental origins of the mind in humans and non-human animals. Jason is also an editor at ScienceSeeker and Editor of Open Lab 2010. He lives in Los Angeles, CA. Follow on . Follow on Twitter @jgold85.

The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.





Rights & Permissions

Comments 10 Comments

Add Comment
  1. 1. vagnry 4:01 pm 02/13/2014

    Thank you, Jason, for a well balanced account of the options available to any zoo, that takes its responsibility to not just entertain the public (without their money zoos would be on the Red List)but to keep viable and genetically diverse species, that can make it possible to reinstate them in the wild.

    I just want to add one issue, the very different view, by the media and the public, of different species, cute, endangered, pets etc. top the charts, animals killed only for their skin come somewhat lower, and farm animals just above pests and varmints!

    In Denmark, we have 23 million pigs (they outnumber humans four times), a weekly offspring of about ½ million piglets, 25000 of them die per week, basically nobody cares, much!

    But if a dog is to be put down, because it bit another dog, or even a person, we see Facebook going wild, demonstrations, abductions of the dogs on death row etc.

    Years ago, I had a lunch break with my colleagues, a young and attractive girl, Grethe, told she had just got a hunting permit, and was going hunting for the first time. Immediately, several others said, how can you be so cruel to the wild animals?

    I said, if I could choose between a pigs life, being cooped up indoors on a steel-bar flooring, with hardly any room to move, no soil to dig into for grubs, and finally be driven into a lorry to be butchered, or, living a life of my own in the countryside, and end up being shot (the Danish word can also be translated as banged) by Grethe, I know what I would prefer.

    The argument stopped!

    Link to this
  2. 2. Jerzy v. 3.0. 5:00 am 02/14/2014

    I doubt an animal shelter would breed dogs and cats uncontrollably ‘not to reduce fertility for future’ or ‘as natural behavior’.

    That zoo is worse. The previous commenter tries desperately do divert attention to intense pig farms and hunting reserves. He only shows, how low Copenhagen Zoo has fallen.

    Link to this
  3. 3. Jerzy v. 3.0. 5:00 am 02/14/2014

    delete an

    Link to this
  4. 4. Rhino 2:53 pm 02/15/2014

    Dear Dr. Goldman,

    I am the former Curator of Howletts & Port Lympne Wildlife Parks in U.K.
    Your article is exhaustive and scientifically rigorous but, in my opinion, it missed totally one of the main roles for a good, modern zoo to exist:

    REINTRODUCTION OF ZOO BRED ANIMALS INTO THE WILD.

    H.&P.L. have returned, SUCCESSFULLY, Gorillas and Black Rhinos and Langurs and Gibbons and Pythons and continuing…

    Best regards,

    Francesco Nardelli

    Link to this
  5. 5. ornabear 2:31 pm 02/17/2014

    Thank you for this article, it is a very accessible, engaging explanation of the larger issues at play.

    I’m wondering if you might know anything more about the specific situation at the Copenhagen Zoo: Other news sources say the zoo received offers from other facilities to take the giraffe, and I’m still unclear why they refused those offers. Were the other facilities not part of EAZA, and thus inadequate? Is there a policy not to rehouse surplus animals on the principal the space would be better used for a genetically more “useful” individual? Fear that the other facility would use contraceptives or otherwise risk this individual’s quality of life? Or that they would allow him to breed and contribute to overpopulation?

    If the only risks of allowing him to move to a different facility were the possible future harms of contraceptives, that strikes me as the more ethical option when compared to the certain immediate harm of truncating this animal’s young life. Certainly all of the factors you describe apply generally, but I’m not sure if they all apply specifically to this case (was he or future progeny really in danger of ending up in a circus?)

    Thanks again for your work!

    (@vagnry , indeed, it is strange that a giraffe attracts this attention considering how cruelly we treat factory farmed pigs. Pigs and giraffes are probably pretty similar socially and intelligence wise.)

    Link to this
  6. 6. KMacLaine 3:43 pm 02/19/2014

    The keepers allowed the parent giraffes to breed (for a variety of reasons) with the understood risk of conception. I can completely understand why they would choose to let the giraffe live as close to their natural instincts as possible in an captive environment, and why they might allow non-recommended breeding to take place.

    What I don’t understand (and maybe my fellow readers can enlighten me) is why they decided to euthanize the animal as opposed to sterilization. I understand that breeding and rearing young are an important part of a captive giraffe’s life and why some might consider it unethical to deprive a being of this experience, but euthanizing such a young animal deprives him of many more experiences (I would think) than just child-rearing.

    To my mind, this is like not letting a diabetic child go to a birthday party because they might feel bad that they can’t have cake.

    And if a baby giraffe was born sterile for whatever reason, would they be euthanized as well? And if the answer is yes, I am thankful for the consistency, even if the logic escapes me.

    Thanks for reading
    -Kmac

    Link to this
  7. 7. Buckeye 12:56 pm 02/20/2014

    The author completely forgets about the most important part of zoos: the visitors. Zoos promote conservation by encouraging people to form an emotional attachment to zoos. The giraffe was given a name — Marius — specifically to encourage visitors to bond with him. He was not named “Hoofstock #4.” It is a profound violation of public trust to kill the animal when other options were available and to make such a spectacle of the death. Jack Hanna, director emeritus of the Columbus Zoo and someone who knows far more about the zoo world than this author, publicly condemned the Copenhagen Zoo for its actions. A zoo is more than a collection of genetic material. No one takes the family to visit a lab.

    Link to this
  8. 8. vagnry 3:28 pm 02/20/2014

    Every country has a more or less set way to look at life.

    Apparently, many US-citizens find it deplorable for a zoo, to let an animal live a life as normal as possible, until it becomes sexually mature, and, if living free, would be chased away by its father, the male, and killing it when this option wasn’t possible.

    The bruhaha over Marius the giraffe in Denmark was minimal, the kids who witnessed the autopsy were, as I could see from the TV-coverage, entertained AND informed! Why does a giraffe have a huge heart, it has to pump blood to the brain som 6-7 feet up in the air.

    I have yet to hear a Dane, who doesn’t think the american laxity about guns, the fact that murder rate in the US is 4.7 out of 100.000 inhabitants or more than 5 times higher than the Danish 0.9, is absurd!

    I’d rather see an animal have a decent life, and killed when this was no longer possible, than have a friend, relative or neighbour killed by some triggerhappy idiot!

    Link to this
  9. 9. hkraznodar 5:47 pm 02/26/2014

    @Rhino – That was my first thought. Even if the critter dies just after being returned to the wild, it would provide support for the rest of the food web in the wild. I wonder if the idea of saving cash on lion feed had a part in the process of deciding this animal’s fate.

    @vagnry – Many Americans share your view of our murder rate but a country founded on pseudo-anarchist principles by terrorists has a hard time truly making rule of law the default behavior.

    I used to love watching Giraffes until one stealth licked my face. Now I have a less benevolent opinion.

    Link to this
  10. 10. Andine2Student 3:49 am 04/27/2014

    The main reason for the outcry after the death of Marius, I believe, is because of how the whole thing was handled.

    I understand that the euthanasia of Marius was done in order to give the other giraffes of the zoo a better life, but there are better ways of dealing with overpopulation and inbreeding.

    As stated in one of the comments, zoos give animals names to involve the public and thus get better support and a feeling of emotional commitment from the visitors, but this should cause the zoos to be way less likely to euthanize a named animal. The visitors might have had a specific liking of Marius and his death could feel irrational and cruel to them.

    If there was no other way, such as contraception, sterilization, transferring or successful release into the wild, the public should have been made aware of the reasons and of the possible positive outcomes of euthanizing Marius.

    Link to this

Add a Comment
You must sign in or register as a ScientificAmerican.com member to submit a comment.

More from Scientific American

Scientific American Special Universe

Get the latest Special Collector's edition

Secrets of the Universe: Past, Present, Future

Order Now >

X

Email this Article

X