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Posts Tagged "insects"

Anthropology in Practice

What’s stopping us from eating insects?

Can insects feed a growing global population? | CC, click on image for license and information.

How many of you watch Andrew Zimmern’s Bizarre Foods on the Travel Channel? And how many of you have said, “I would never eat that!” Have you ever stopped to think about why you feel that way? What if you had no choice? What if you had been taught differently? As a part of the [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

Blueprints Revealed for a Milk-Making Insect with a Nasty Reputation

tsetse_larva_Geoffrey_Attardo_Science_200

African tsetse flies are not pleasant to encounter. Slightly larger than a horse-fly and very aggressive, they fly headlong toward their target at high speed, bounce off, and then search around for a suitable spot to tap it. If they are lucky enough to do so, they inflict a painful bite during which they drink [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

Suspicious Virus Makes Rare Cross-Kingdom Leap From Plants to Honeybees

tobacco_ringspot_virus_Li_et_al_mBio_200

When HIV jumped from chimpanzees to humans sometime in the early 1900s, it crossed a gulf spanning several million years of evolution. But tobacco ringspot virus, scientists announced last week, has made a jump that defies credulity. It has crossed a yawning chasm ~1.6 billion years wide. And this is likely bad news for its [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

You Know You Want To Help (6-Legged) Monarchs. Here’s How.

monarch_caterpillar_milkweed_Marshal_Hedin_flickr_permission_200

Last year, a hard year by monarch butterfly migration standards, 60 million monarchs showed up at their misty wintering grounds in Mexico. This year, so far, a mere 3 million have straggled in — and late, too, according to a disturbing must-read piece (“The Year the Monarch Didn’t Appear”) published last Friday in the New [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

The Attack of the Giant Water Bug

giant_water_bug_Lethocerus_americanus_wiki_cc_The_High_Fin_Sperm_Whale_200

In the creeks and ponds of the world — including America — lives an insect that can reach four inches long and bears a pair of giant pincers and a beak for injective digestive enzymes into its victim. It goes by the name giant water bug. This is what it does for a living. What [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

How the Fleas’ Next of Kin Ended up Living on a Liverwort in Alaska

caurinus_tlagu_zookeys_sikes_and_stockbridge_2013_200

Beware the Giant Paintbrush, Little Insect Way, way down in the southeast corner of Alaska lies Prince of Wales Island, the fourth largest in the United States. At around 2,500 square miles, it’s some 1,000 square miles larger than Long Island (which ranks a paltry 11th).  At the northern end of this sizeable but remote [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

The Dark Bacillus Crystal

Bacillus_thuringiensis-toxin-crystals_wiki_pd_200

In this photograph are elegant, microscopic agents of death. They are crystals made not of minerals, but of protein, and are found not in vugs, but in guts. Bug guts. They are Cry protein crystals made by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. You may know them better as Bt toxin. Bt toxin has gotten a lot [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

The Glowing Spider-Worms of New Zealand

Spellbound glowworm threads_200

Imagine you are a tiny caddisfly pupa. When you emerge from your pupal case, it is dark, but not pitch black, and high above you, you see the faint glow of a starry sky. On new wings, you rise. Cue angelic voices. Suddenly, you struggle against an invisible barrier. Cue scary cello. You begin to [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

Planthoppers of Iran: Are You OK?

planthopper_siphanta_acuta_Brocken_Inaglory_wiki_cc_200

Every once in a while, a scientific work comes along of such import that it is impossible not to cover it. Such is the paper “Planthoppers of Iran” (well, actually “An annotated checklist of the planthoppers of Iran (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha) with distribution data“). Now, I’ll wager you know what an Iran is. But did [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

Bombardier Beetles, Bee Purple, and the Sirens of the Night

photuris_wiki_cc_Bruce_Marlins_200

Author’s note: This essay was originally posted on April 19, 2011, at Artful Amoeba 1.0 honoring the work of the late Thomas Eisner, a world-renowned chemical ecologist. I’m reposting it in honor of Chemistry Day. Enjoy! If I read my notes correctly, Thomas Eisner once had a pet thrush named Sybil who rejected only five [...]

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But Seriously...

Interview with a Cicada (Expert)

Cicada-Alex Wild

In North Carolina, this was a big year for cicadas. Our 17-year cicadas, after biding their time underground for so very long, finally emerged in the spring. This event, in turn, stimulated the emergence of a species that is extraordinarily rare: the cicada specialist. Chris Simon is an excellent specimen of the latter. A cicada [...]

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But Seriously...

Insect Paparazzi: Eye of the Dragon

Dragonfly Eye - Blue Dasher

I rarely get to shoot dragonflies as they hungrily patrol their airspace, never stopping to rest. But sometimes they alight and, when they do, I’m there, camera in hand. This one is a Blue Dasher, scientific name Pachydiplax longipennis.  And, no, that species name, longipennis, actually means “long wings.” Sorry. I’ve noticed, when disturbed by my [...]

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But Seriously...

Insect Paparazzi: Leafhoppers!

Japanese Maple Leafhopper-Brian Malow

You might not know this about me but I have a particular science art fetish: I’m into insect photography. By which, of course, I mean photographs taken by insects. In pursuit of this art, I’ve chased insects around so doggedly – sweating in the summer sun, getting bitten all to hell by malarial mosquitos – [...]

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Compound Eye

Wasps Are Our Friends: Part IV

Encarsia

When most people think of wasps, they imagine a stereotypically striped stinging insect. Such wasps are part of the family Vespidae, but they are, in fact, a minority of species and unrepresentative of their order. Taken by sheer number of species, the average wasp is quite a different animal: timid, stingless, and very, very small. [...]

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Compound Eye

How To Pick A Photoshopped Firefly

Photinus pyralis

Now that firefly season is sparking up our eastern and midwestern summer evenings, I am starting to see not just the insects themselves but the attendant media buzz. That nature gets some public attention is a good thing, of course. But nature untouched isn’t apparently enough for everyone. A surprising number of common stock firefly [...]

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Compound Eye

Wasps Are Our Friends: Part III

Megischus bicolor

You might think an insect with an extra pointy derriere would pack a fearsome sting, but you’d be wrong. The extended rear appendage of the crown-of-thorns wasp is not a stinger but an egg-laying organ, the ovipositor, used to reach beetle grubs chewing through the wood below. Young wasps develop as ectoparasites of beetles in [...]

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Compound Eye

Wasps Are Our Friends: Part II

Eucharitid6f

The second in our series promoting the breadth and value of wasps features the gorgeous Orasema, a tiny metallic wasp that lives in ant nests. Young wasps feed on developing ant brood. When they mature, the winged adults leave the nest to fly and mate. After mating, Orasema biology gets weird. Instead of sensibly returning to [...]

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Compound Eye

Wasps Are Our Friends: Part I

Encyrtid6f

I’ve had about enough of people unfairly picking on wasps, so I’m fighting back with a series of photographs showing the bright side of these fascinating insects. Comperia merceti is only a couple millimeters long, but it has an outsized effect on cockroaches. Young wasps of this species develop inside cockroaches’ hardened egg cases, consuming the [...]

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Compound Eye

A Short Safari In A Small Oak Tree

UrbanaTree9f

Imagine a safari in your neighborhood. Instead of a few days hauling luggage through international airports, though, picture a leisurely five minute stroll from the front door. Local nature holds fantastic mini wildlife. For those willing to trade global for local, and large for small, there is plenty to see. I am speaking of ant lions [...]

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Compound Eye

Recipe For A Photograph #4: The Emerging Mosquito

Aedes aegypti

Here is a powerful method to photograph the world’s most dangerous animal in an unusual moment of vulnerability. But first, a digression into mosquito biology. Mosquitoes lead a starkly different existence between their early days and their adult lives, spending their youth in the water and their adulthood in the air. The transition occurs when [...]

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Compound Eye

Photographing Uncooperative Insects: The Time-Out Trick

striata1f

And now, the technique I find most useful in the studio for calming an overly active insect. I call it the time-out trick. It goes like this: Place the insect on a flat surface, confine it with an upside-down petri dish (you can buy them here) or a small glass, and wait. In a pinch, [...]

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Compound Eye

Photographing Uncooperative Insects: The Nest Entrance Trick

MyrmecoTenuinodis1f

Earlier, I mentioned that chilling active insects to more easily photograph them can give unnatural results. How is the intrepid photographer to work with animals that do not sit still? A strategy that works well with species that build nests- especially, bees, wasps, and ants- is to find and stake out their nest entrances. The [...]

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Compound Eye

Freezing Insects To Slow Them Makes Terrible Photographs

elongata4f

I often find myself in discussions over how to photograph uncooperative insects, and these invariably descend into the technique of slowing the animals by chilling. I don’t approve. Having fridged a lot of insects in the line of nature photography, my experience with chilling is largely negative. Insects out of the freezer just look… bad. [...]

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Culturing Science

The Swan Song of the Cicadas

cicada

After surviving cicada emergences and witnessing several cycles of journalism’s cicada beat, you’d think I’d have seen it all. Articles about prime number cycling and climate change, evolution and recipes. I even contributed to the pile-on in 2011, considering why bursts of cicadas don’t seem to help bird populations. All of this attention is, of course, well-deserved: [...]

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Extinction Countdown

Giant Tusked Insect Saved from Extinction (Just in the Nick of Time)

Motuweta isolata

The Mercury Islands tusked weta (Motuweta isolata) isn’t exactly a thing of beauty. These massive New Zealand insects can reach more than seven centimeters in length, including the impressive tusks in front of their jaws that they use to push their prey around. But size and bullying strength didn’t necessarily help this weta, one of [...]

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Extinction Countdown

Britain Tries (Again) to Re-Introduce Extinct Bees

short-haired bee

Long live the queens. A species of bumblebee that went extinct in its native Britain decades ago now has a second chance, as several short-haired bumblebees (Bombus subterraneus) were released June 3 in a restored habitat on the southeastern corner of England. This is the third phase in a multi-step effort to both bring back [...]

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Extinction Countdown

3 British Moths Extinct; Most Other Species in Decline

Orange Upperwing - A Spalding, Butterfly Conservation

Three moth species have disappeared from the U.K. in the past decade and two thirds of the species that remain have suffered dramatic population crashes according to new research from the organizations Butterfly Conservation and Rothamsted Research. The news is published in the new report “The State of Britain’s Larger Moths 2013″ (pdf), which covers [...]

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Extinction Countdown

Newly Discovered Cave Weta Species Endangered by Coal Mining

cave weta

If you have seen any of Peter Jackson’s movies, such as this week’s release of The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, then you have probably noticed the logo for the special effects company Weta Workshop, which works on most of the director’s New Zealand–based projects. The workshop is named after a bunch of endemic New Zealand [...]

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Extinction Countdown

World’s Largest Butterfly Threatened by Shrinking Habitat and Deforestation

Queen Alexandra's Birdwing 2

Counting butterflies in the wild is not an easy task, even when you are looking for the largest butterfly in the world, the Queen Alexandra’s birdwing (Ornithoptera alexandrae) of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Females of the species have an impressive and eye-catching 30-centimeter wingspan, 50 percent larger than the more colorful males. But the Queen [...]

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Extinction Countdown

Yarsagumba: Aphrodisiac Fungus Faces Extinction in Nepal

Climate change and overharvesting have put a Himalayan fungus valued for its purported aphrodisiac qualities at risk of extinction. Known variously as yarsagumba, yarchagumba, yartsa gunba, yatsa gunbu and, more colloquially, “Himalayan Viagra,” the parasitic caterpillar fungus Cordyceps (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) grows on and kills Tibetan ghost moths during their larval phase underground. A tiny mushroom [...]

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Extinction Countdown

Bad News for Christmas: Frankincense Faces Uncertain Future

frankincense tree

Frankincense—that aromatic staple of the original Christmas story—could soon be “doomed” to near-extinction, according to research published December 21 in the Journal of Applied Ecology. Frankincense is an aromatic resin used in perfumes and incense. It comes from trees of the Boswellia genus, which grow mostly in the Horn of Africa and Arabian Peninsula. The [...]

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Extinction Countdown

Only you can help prevent firefly extinction

Are fireflies disappearing? No one knows for sure, but based on anecdotal evidence firefly (aka lightning bug) populations appear to be fading, with fewer seen every summer. Unfortunately, the bioluminescent insects had always been so ubiquitous to backyards and campgrounds for so long that almost no one bothered to study them. Now the Museum of [...]

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Extinction Countdown

Bugs off: Habitat loss killing Europe’s butterflies, beetles and dragonflies

violet click beetle

With fewer places left to breed and live, European butterflies, beetles, dragonflies and damselflies are dying in droves, according to the latest update to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The Red List update finds that 9 percent of Europe’s butterflies, 11 percent of its saproxylic beetles and 14 percent of dragonflies are threatened [...]

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Extinction Countdown

Mediterranean dragonflies and damselflies disappearing with region’s freshwater

Glittering Demoiselle, an endangered damselfly

As goes the water, so go the dragonflies. That’s the finding of a new report from the IUCN concluding that one fifth of dragonflies and damselflies in the Mediterranean region are threatened with extinction as a result of increasing freshwater scarcity. Threats facing the insects include habitat degradation, pollution and climate change. According to the [...]

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Guest Blog

Ant Thrills: Seeing Leaf-Cutter Ants through an Artist’s Eyes

When Catherine Chalmers headed to Costa Rica for the third time this past January, she had a script in mind that told a very specific story: the stripping of nature. With a cast of hundreds, if not thousands, she would film a leafy branch being reduced to wood to represent the larger picture of clear-cutting [...]

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Guest Blog

Too Hard for Science? Bora Zivkovic–Centuries to Solve the Secrets of Cicadas

Red-eyed periodic cicadas emerge every 13 or 17 years, but finding out why could take millennia In ""Too Hard for Science?" I interview scientists about ideas they would love to explore that they don’t think could be investigated. For instance, they might involve machines beyond the realm of possibility, such as particle accelerators as big [...]

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Guest Blog

Man discovers a new life-form at a South African truck stop

Like many biologists, the German biologist Oliver Zompro spends thousands of hours looking at specimens of dead animals. He found his first new species when he was twenty. By the age of thirty he had named dozens of wild new forms. While other people around him did crossword puzzles and drank lattes, he explored the [...]

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Guest Blog

Winter stoneflies sure are supercool

Perhaps it’s the summers I spent in college counting and identifying dragonflies and butterflies on the wing. Or maybe it was the hundreds of hours I endured in graduate school with my face dangerously close to a pan of full of muck, plucking out thousands of tiny stream insects. I reckon it’s just a lifetime [...]

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Lab Rat

Butterfly watch: multi-generational migrations

The Painted Lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui. Picture taken in Ename, Belgium Tim Bekaert (July 12, 2005).

Migrating animals are always impressive to watch. The ability to cover huge areas of land in massive groups can be a beneficial strategy for many animals; whether birds, mammals or shoals of fish. Yet even more impressive than migrations by groups of individuals are those that take place over several generations. In the case of [...]

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Lab Rat

The bacteria that make insects eat their own brains

An electon micrograph of an insect cell, with three Wolbachia bacteria inside (the large circular blobs with white lines surrounding them). Image from reference 2.

As far as bacteria are concerned, other living creatures are just another niche to exploit, which means that pretty much every animal and plant has a set of bacterial pathogens that come along with it. These bacteria have made the animal in question their speciality, and are highly adapted to live inside their hosts. While [...]

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Lab Rat

Butterfly Watch: The Wall Butterfly

A male wall butterfly, photo by Jörg Hempel via wikimedia commons. Credit link below.

I’ve been on holiday for the last few days, so haven’t had much time to read papers about bacteria. What I have been doing, however, is looking at butterflies. Since my sudden and unexpected discovery that I was obsessed with them I have since bought a butterfly field guide and now try to identify them [...]

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Lab Rat

Bacterial Traitors

They are kind of cute though...

Aphids are small insects that are a major pest in crop production. Dealing with these aphid pests often involves the use of pesticides, however growing resistance to these pesticides means that many farmers are now looking to use natural predators such as ladybirds or hoverflies to stop aphids destroying crops. However the problem with natural [...]

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Observations

Your Meat Should Be Raised on Insects, U.N. Says

Black solider fly eyes

There has been a lot of press, both positive and negative, about a recent United Nations report in which scientists recommended that we start eating insects to fight world hunger. But the other U.N. recommendation—that farmers should consider feeding insects to poultry and aquacultured fish—did not garner nearly as much attention, despite seeming more feasible. [...]

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Observations

Deciphering the Strange Mathematics of Cicadas [Video]

“Periodical cicadas have the longest life cycles known for insects. They are called ‘periodical’ because in any one population all but a trivially small fraction are exactly the same age. The nymphs suck juices from the roots of forest trees and finally emerge from the ground, become adults, mate, lay their eggs, and die, all [...]

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Observations

Dung Beetles Follow the Stars

dung beetle milky way stars orient straight path

The humble dung beetle makes its living rolling big balls of excrement to feed its offspring and itself. But this lowly occupation doesn’t mean the insect doesn’t have its eye on the skies—even when the sun goes down. Recent research has shown that African ball-rolling dung beetles (Scarabaeus satyrus) use strong light cues from the [...]

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Observations

Mealworms: The Other-Other-Other White Meat?

mealworm protein climate change population

Looking for the perfect holiday entrée? Something nutritious yet easy on the Earth? Something with a subtle, yet distinctive, je-ne-sais-quoi flavor? Have you considered the humble mealworm? What about the super superworm? Before you click away in disgust, remember that the creeping, shelled, 10-legged crustacean we now so lovingly dip in butter (ahem, the lobster) [...]

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Observations

Wormholes in Art Trace Species through Time and Space

wormhole art woodblock print dating beetle species

Wormholes aren’t just for time travel or teleportation anymore. Some very real and ancient wormholes are now helping to trace the distribution of insect species and artwork. A biologist found himself in the unlikely world of centuries-old European woodblock print art. There, he discovered that many of the small imperfections in the prints could be [...]

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Observations

Booted Dung Beetles Reveal Clever Cooling [Video]

dung beetle

Anyone who’s been to the beach on a hot day knows the feeling of scorching sand underfoot. But do beetles that cross the sunny savanna or dwell in the desert feel it, too? Biologists have found that not only do dung beetles—which famously feed on feces rolled across the sand until it becomes a smooth [...]

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Observations

Are Zombie Bees Infiltrating Your Neighborhood?

parasite flies and zombie bee

Zombie bees are not science fiction. They are real—and real threat to already-threatened U.S. honeybee populations. Honeybees (Apis mellifera) in California and South Dakota have been observed acting zombielike, wandering away from their hives at night and crawling around blindly in circles. These insects have been rendered insensate by a parasitizing fly that lays eggs [...]

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Observations

Moss Sperm Smells Sweet Enough for Sex

moss uses bugs to spread sperm

Moss, that cushy, moisture-loving ground cover, is more promiscuous than we thought. These plants might not have the sexy flowers of a peony, but according to new research, they do manage to attract small pollinators with a subtle sweet smell. Previously, scientists had presumed that these primitive plants needed a layer of water for their [...]

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Observations

Van Gogh’s Sunflowers Were Genetic Mutants

sunflower

The word “sunflower” brings to mind a mane of vibrant yellow petals encircling a dark whorl of seeds. But not all sunflowers are alike. Some sunflowers have scraggly petals, for instance, or small centers. Many of the sunflowers Vincent Van Gogh depicted in his famous series of oil paintings look rather unusual, sporting wooly, chrysanthemum-like [...]

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Observations

Personality Might Be Genetically Encoded in Bee Brains

bee personality

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are more than cookie-cutter drones, workers, foragers and queens. They might have individual personality differences similar to our own, according to new research. After studying hives—both in the wild and in the lab—and analyzing genetic and biochemical profiles of bees’ brains, researchers have found that some bees, like some humans, seem to [...]

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Running Ponies

Largest aquatic insect in the world found in China

Megaloptera-featured

Hello, giant friend, and welcome. Please step through the hallowed gates of “World’s Biggest” and join your freakishly long, abnormally bulky peers. Now if you could all just arrange yourselves from largest to least large, that would be a big help, because we here on Earth need to know who wins, it’s very important to [...]

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Running Ponies

Shadow, Labyrinth, Mirror: New Species of Child-Eating Dracula Ants Get Cool Ninja Names

mystrium-featured

Time to dust off those tuxedos and meet me at the Blood Bar in five, because we’ve got six new species of Dracula ants to discuss. Species belonging to the Amblyoponinae subfamily of ants from Madagascar have earned the nickname ‘Dracula ants’, thanks to a social feeding system that involves the queens and workers feeding [...]

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Running Ponies

Trilobite Beetles are Happy Being on Land, Alive in the Present Day

trilobite-beetle-ponies

I know they look like they belong in the ocean 250 million years ago, but trilobite beetles are actually pretty happy existing in the present day. On land. They hate water, what are you doing? Don’t put them in there. You’ll kill them if you do that. Found in lowland forests across Southeast Asia and [...]

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Running Ponies

You’re About to get the Stink Bugs, America. But no, they won’t be Man-Faced

man-faced-stinkbug-featured

This is Catacanthus incarnatus, otherwise known as the Man-Faced Stink Bug. Discovered in 1778 by British entomologist, Dru Drury, the species hails from Southeast Asia and India, where it congregates in dense groups of several hundred on fruit trees and flowering flame trees. Man-Faced Stink Bugs can come in several colours, such as red, yellow, [...]

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Running Ponies

Beetle Battles: The Secret World of Leg Wrestling and Abdomen Squeezing

frog-legged-leaf-beetle-sagra-featured

This is the frog-legged leaf beetle (Sagra buqueti), and there’s a good chance those gigantic gams are his weapons. Found in the jungles of Southeast Asia, this brightly coloured, iridescent species can grow up to 5 cm long. Unlike its namesake, it doesn’t use its hind legs for jumping, instead they’re used to cling onto [...]

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Running Ponies

Photographer Nicky Bay’s Purple Centipedes and Singapore Blues

nicky-bay-centipede-moult

I spend a great deal of time looking at weird insects on the Internet, and time and time again, Nicky Bay has the best shots of many different species and behaviours. The Singapore-based game designer managed to photograph that purple house centipede (Scutigeridae) mere moments after it shed its exoskeleton, which hangs quite beautifully on [...]

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Running Ponies

Dancing woolly aphids will probably stab you

“Hey you guys are having a party? Where’s my invite? JK, JK it’s cool, I don’t have a letter box anyway. Where should I stash my beers? Why isn’t there any music playing? Oh is this one of those silent discos…” “Sir, this is a very serious operation, we’re trying to save lives here and [...]

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Running Ponies

Glad you ditched the anal fork, Golden Tortoise Beetle

This pretty little molten gold beetle has been doing the rounds of the Internet lately, because not only does it look like nothing else on Earth, but it can also completely change colours. And it’s just as pretty when it does. This is golden tortoise beetle (Charidotella sexpunctata, previously known as Metriona bicolor), a tiny, [...]

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Symbiartic

Good Microbes Make Good Pets

13-050BenArthurAnimation

THIS is good scicomm. Why? Well, for many reasons – good writing, good sound, good editing – but by far the most apparent, the reason most people will sit up and take note is because of the strong visuals. This is illustrator Benjamin Arthur’s third collaboration with NPR on science animations and it shows what [...]

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Symbiartic

Do you prefer your maggots salty or sweet?

Picture 1

There have been a whole slew of articles about the merits of eating bugs lately. The Atlantic, The New York Times, and The New Yorker have all run articles within the last month on various people in Europe and the US who are trying to reverse our deep aversion to entomophagy, the practice of eating [...]

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The Thoughtful Animal

Talking Nerdy with Cara Santa Maria

TPL jason cara

Earlier this week I sat down with my friend Cara Santa Maria to chat on her excellent podcast, Talk Nerdy. The conversation was wide-ranging: we talked about the discovery of a new group of insects in which the females have what many are calling a “penis-like structure” (but which the researchers have labeled a gynosome), [...]

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The Thoughtful Animal

Cricket Fight Club: Winning Increases Aggression

cricket photo

It’s better than an ant farm. It’s more exciting than a flea circus. Welcome to Cricket Fight Club. The first rule of Cricket Fight Club is: you do not talk about Cricket Fight Club. The second rule of Cricket Fight Club is: you do not talk about Cricket Fight Club. In aggressive conflicts between individuals [...]

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The Thoughtful Animal

Elephants Say “Bee-ware!”

ResearchBlogging.org

What information is contained in the call of a mammal? Some calls might reflect the internal emotional state of the animal, like fear or anxiety, or they can refer to an external object, agent, or event, like the presence of a predator. Rhesus monkeys, lemurs, baboons, and guinea pigs, for example, will produce calls when [...]

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