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The Curious Wavefunction


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Should physicists stop looking for fundamental laws?

The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.


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The existence of bubble-like multiple universes could transform physics from a fundamental science to a historical one (Image: Etfriends)

Physics, unlike biology or geology, was not considered to be a historical science until now. Physicists have prided themselves on being able to derive the vast bulk of phenomena in the universe from first principles. Biology – and chemistry, as a matter of fact – are different. Chance and contingency play an important role in the evolution of chemical and biological phenomena, so beyond a point scientists in these disciplines have realized that it’s pointless to ask questions about origins and first principles.

The overriding “fundamental law” in biology is that of evolution by natural selection. But while the law is fundamental on a macro scale, its details at a micro level don’t lend themselves to real explanation in terms of origins. For instance the bacterial flagellum is a product of accident and time, a key structure involved in locomotion, feeding and flight that resulted from gene sharing, recombination and selective survival of certain species spread over billions of years. While one can speculate, it is impossible to know for certain all the details that led to the evolution of this marvelous molecular motor. Thus biologists have accepted history and accident as integral parts of their fundamental laws.

Physics was different until now. Almost everything in the universe could be explained in terms of fundamental laws like Einstein’s theory of gravity (general relativity) or the laws of quantum mechanics. If you wanted to explain the shape and structure of a galaxy you could seek the explanation in the precise motion of the various particles governed by the laws of gravity. If you wanted to explain why water is H20 and not H30 you could seek the explanation in the principles of quantum mechanics that in turn dictate the laws of chemical bonding.

But beyond this wildly successful level of explanation seems to lie an impasse. The problem arises when you try to explain one of the most profound facts of nature, the fact that the fundamental constants of nature are fine-tuned to a fault, that the universe as we know it would not exist if these constants had even slightly different values. For instance, it is impossible to imagine life existing had the strength of the strong force binding nuclei together been even a few percent smaller or larger. Scientists have struggled for decades to explain why other numbers like the value of Planck’s constant or the electron’s mass are what they are. It seems now that they are giving up trying to do this, or at least giving up trying to do it the way they always have.

The point was driven home to me by two books that I read recently. One was Max Tegmark’s “The Mathematical Universe“. In the book Tegmark takes us on a dizzying journey through modern physics that ends in the fanciful realm of multiple universes. It’s hardly the first book to do so. Multiple universes have been invoked to explain many problems in physics, but their most common use is try to explain (or explain away, as some seem to rightly think) the problem of the fundamental constants. The purported “solution” sounds simple; we can stop wondering why the fundamental constants have the precise values that they do if we assume the existence of a potentially infinite number of universes, each of which has a different set of values for the constants. Our universe just happens to have the right combination that allows sentient life to arise and ask such questions in the first place.

Leaving aside the fact that multiple universes still belong to speculation and science fiction rather than science, what is really striking about them to me is that they have finally transported physics into the realm of biology. What physicists are essentially saying is that there have been several universes in the past and there are likely several universes in the present, and our unique universe with its specific combination of fundamental constants is an accident. The multiple universe argument is very much similar to the argument establishing evolution by natural selection as the centerpiece of biology: there have been several species with several genotypic and phenotypic features, and our own human species is a result of contingency and historical accident. This is not so much an explanation as an admission of incomplete knowledge, but biologists are fine with this since it does not obviate any natural law and is still part of a satisfying overarching theory.

It looks like with the postulation of multiple universes physicists too have stepped over from the land of fundamental explanatory laws into the land of historical accident and contingency. This is a radical shift in the way physics has been done until now and a rather painful blow to the physicist’s view of nature. One might also say that biology is having the last laugh. In the sixteenth and seventeenth century when biology was still doing the messy job of cataloging data and trying to make sense of the mess, physics was marching on, discovering precise regularities and generalities in nature’s offerings. Since then several sciences including biology and economics have suffered from “physics envy”. But now it ironically looks like physics’s successful run at predicting everything from first principles might have become a victim of its own success. It may be the case that physicists’s spectacular findings themselves have illuminated their own limitations. In his latest book “The Accidental Universe“, physicist and writer Alan Lightman puts it thus:

“Dramatic developments in cosmological findings and thought have led some of the world’s premier physicists to propose that our universe is only one of an enormous number of universes, with wildly varying properties, and that some of the most basic features of our particular universe are mere accidents – random throws of the cosmic dice. In which case, there is no hope of ever explaining these features in terms of fundamental causes and principles.”

Lightman also quotes the doyen of physicists, Steven Weinberg, who recognizes this watershed in the history of his discipline:

“We now find ourselves at a historic fork in the road we travel to understand the laws of nature. If the multiverse idea is correct, the style of fundamental physics will be radically changed.”

Although Weinberg does not say this, what’s depressing about the multiverse is that its existence might always remain postulated and never proven. This is an ever worse scenario because the only thing that a scientist hates even more than an unpleasant answer to a question is no answer at all. It’s not inaccurate to say that many physicists – and especially those like Weinberg who have been part of the spectacular revolution in physics during the 60s and 70s – are distressed by this fact. The metamorphosis of physics into a historical science means that many of the facts that have troubled the field’s foremost practitioners may be a product of chance and  fundamentally unexplainable in terms of more basic laws. I must emphasize that this is not some kind of “end of physics” scenario that I am imagining here (unlike my Scientific American colleague John Horgan); there are still plenty of very challenging questions dealing with the application of the fundamental laws that will keep physicists occupied for decades. Foremost among these may be the conundrum of emergent phenomena which themselves are very fundamental in fields like neuroscience and economics. I am also not implying that physicists should simply give up looking for fundamental laws. But their methodological take on finding these laws may have to change. As far as the deep question of why certain building blocks of the universe seem to exist within very narrow constraints is concerned, physicists might simply have to accept that there is no true causal explanation for the fact.

Are physicists justified in feeling despondent because they seem to be tapping the bottom of the barrel in their search for fundamental laws? I don’t think so. Biologists have known about contingency and accident ever since Darwin wrote his great book, but not only has this not made them emotionally unstable but it has also not kept them from making spectacular discoveries in their discipline. Just because a system of laws might have a historical origin based on accident does not mean that there are no great truths about the system still waiting to be discovered. But more importantly, perhaps physicists need to embrace contingency to be as much of a fundamental law as any other. Biologists know this; in fact they know that there would be no evolution in the first place without contingency, and they know that it is thanks to historical accident that they get to study the incredibly rich cornucopia of living structures that the earth has presented to them.

The best thing would be for physicists to realize that just because the ultimate laws of their discipline might have a fundamentally accidental origin, it does not mean that the manifestations of those laws are any less important or useful. The most important page they should lift out of the biologists’ playbook is very simple; when ideas about a field evolve, it is best for the practitioners of the field to evolve too.

Ashutosh Jogalekar About the Author: Ashutosh (Ash) Jogalekar is a chemist interested in the history and philosophy of science. He considers science to be a seamless and all-encompassing part of the human experience. Follow on Twitter @curiouswavefn.

The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.





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  1. 1. Spironis 12:18 pm 01/21/2014

    Grant funding defines theory defines observation – the streetlight fallacy.

    1) Massless boson photons detect no vacuum refraction, dispersion, dissipation, dichroism, gyrotropy.
    2) Postulate exact truth for fermionic matter (quarks).
    3) Derived theory suffers unending parity violations, symmetry breakings, chiral anomalies, Chern-Simons repair of Einstein-Hilbert action.
    4) The vacuum is trace chiral, not exactly isotropic, toward matter.
    5) Noether’s theorems couple exact vacuum isotropy and angular momentum conservation.
    Conservation leaks for matter as Milgrom acceleration. No dark matter.
    6) Opposite shoes embed within chiral vacuum (mount a left foot) with different energies. They vacuum free fall non-identically (Equivalence Principle violation).
    7)Crystallography’s opposite shoes are visually and chemically identical, single crystal test masses in enantiomorphic space groups.
    8) http://www.mazepath.com/uncleal/erotor1.jpg
    Two geometric Eötvös experiments. 0.113 nm^3/alpha-quartz unit cell. 40 grams net as 8 single crystal test masses compare 6.68×10^22 pairs of opposite shoes (pairs of enantiomorphic unit cells, opposite vertical sides of the test mass array cube).

    Challenge postulates not derivations.

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  2. 2. MultiWoman 7:44 am 01/22/2014

    Ash,

    One of your better posts! Thank you.

    Link to this
  3. 3. tegmark 7:10 pm 01/22/2014

    Thanks Ashutosh for raising this important question of where to draw the boundary between science and science fiction! You refer to “the fact that multiple universes still belong to speculation and science fiction rather than science” as if this were a universally agreed-upon fact, even though I have numerous physics colleagues who disagree.
    Please remember that parallel universes are not a theory, but a *prediction* of certain scientific theories, which are in turn testable.
    As you’ve seen, my book doesn’t claim that parallel universes exist. It merely describes various logical situations where some theory X implies a certain type of parallel universes, and then describes the evidence for theory X (and hence, by modus ponens) for parallel universes.
    X=eternal cosmological inflation gives the Level I multiverse, X=unitary quantum mechanics gives the Level III multiverse, etc.
    We certainly don’t know whether either of these theories are correct, but I think you’ll agree with me that it’s going to be interesting to perform further experiments to find out!
    /Max

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  4. 4. curiouswavefunction 10:40 am 01/23/2014

    Thanks for your comment Max. I definitely enjoyed reading your book in spite of my reservations about some of its conclusions. I of course agree that performing further experiments will be very interesting and I look forward to their findings. It’s just that I cannot help but ponder how far science has come from its empiricist roots. This does not mean it’s wrong; it just means it’s a brave new world, and that’s why I think we should be even more circumspect than usual.

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  5. 5. talrich 8:38 pm 01/23/2014

    Ashutosh, I don’t understand why your seem to conflate explanation for fundamental constants with understanding the laws of physics. I would say the latter are very far from settled. Of course, there’s no certainty that they will ever actually be settled, but that question has nothing to do with deciding why the fundamental constants have the values they do.

    In other words, the fact that the only good “explanation” for the values of fundamental concepts is the multiverse doesn’t mean there aren’t laws that determine all physical phenomena; and these laws are still far from settled, as we all know.

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  6. 6. Dr. Strangelove 1:28 am 01/24/2014

    Ash, Max
    Multiverse is unobservable. It is metaphysics. Indistinguishable from imaginary. More fantastic and inexplicable than constants of nature it seeks to explain. Occam’s razor will cut it out as unnecessary metaphysical baggage. The hypothesis isn’t even wrong!

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  7. 7. hungry doggy 12:52 pm 01/25/2014

    One of the problems with the multiverse is that it doesn’t actually solve the fine tuning problem. Please let me explain what I mean by that.

    Let’s suppose for a moment that there is actually a multiverse that breeds new universes. You still need to explain the laws that govern the over-all multiverse. If the multiverse is throwing off new universes then it must be following some kind of physical laws of its own. Why then those laws instead of say a set of physical laws that don’t permit new universes? Or even a set of laws where any combination of the permitted values of the fundamental constants don’t allow for the possibility of life? Couldn’t you just as well have a multiverse with different rules? It looks to me like all you’ve done is push the fine tuning question up another level. (I’m explaining this badly. I hope you understand what I’m trying to say.)

    While I have an open mind on whether the multiverse is real, I think we are all aware that (1) the theory carries enormous baggage and complexity and (2) there is no evidence of other universes. Additionally, although this isn’t scientific, it just feels like the wrong answer.

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  8. 8. jimmoffet 3:08 pm 01/25/2014

    Can someone please explain to me why it’s not inherently ridiculous to ask why we don’t observe constants that would preclude our existence, and therefore our ability to observe them?

    Why can’t the constants, and our own existence, simply be chalked up to random chance? Because we exist? That seems like simple narcissism.

    Are we to assume that there is no circumstance under which a universe with different constants could produce something even more special and interesting than the “life” that this one produces?

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  9. 9. bkbroyla 10:42 am 01/26/2014

    We used to think there were five forces: strong and weak nuclear, gravity, electricity, and magnetism. Later it was shown that E and M could be combined as manifestations or aspects of the same electromagnetism. Then EM gets merged with the weak nuclear, making electroweak. So we’re down to three. And some physicists are trying to find the theory of everything, ‘the one ring to bind them all’.

    If it turns out to be the case that this is all one force, then wouldn’t the ratio of the strengths of gravity vs. the SNF be ‘tidally locked’? Proponents of the anthropic principle claim this ratio is set somehow, arbitrarily, and could have been adjusted up or down slightly, preventing a life-bearing universe. Wouldn’t the TOE make the astronomical unlikelihood of these constants and ratios a moot point?

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  10. 10. Petros1513 1:52 am 01/27/2014

    One problem with the idea that the multiverse all of a sudden magically removes the idea of a fundamental law is that it doesn’t at all, it merely shifts the level up one more. A point that other physicists have brought up but that some seem to forget is that the multiverse itself would have its own overarching meta-law governing the evolution of the multiverse itself.

    The search for a fundamental law of this nature might not be possible through empirical methods, but that doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist.

    Link to this
  11. 11. BSwan85 5:35 pm 01/28/2014

    Great post. Epistemologically we keep falling short on explaining the “why’s” in physics. The multiverse hypothesis is an example of a vain attempt at trying to prove the terrain wrong in defense of a superb, meticulously created map.

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