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Alien horror: Stephen Hawking hawks Stephen King

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amateur na'viThis past weekend, the renowned astrophysicist Stephen Hawking joined what seems to be a growing chorus of cautious naysayers—or nervous nellies?—when it comes to possible contact with intelligent aliens from other worlds. He warned viewers of his Discovery Channel program that contact would be unwise, because the aliens might be seeking new resources and could prove hostile, the way Europeans were to the natives of the New World.
 
But notwithstanding the fact that intelligent life appears to be extremely rare, what are the odds that space aliens would really want something from our planet?
 
A species that masters the difficulty of space travel would certainly seem to have the brain power to mine its own resources without having to travel tens of light years (at least) to ravage our home. If Mars had dense forests of mahogany trees and bountiful oceans of bluefin tuna, would it really be worth the expense to mount an expedition just to raze and fish the planet? Even the most environmentally insensitive among us would have to concede that the hundreds of billions of dollars needed just for a round-trip to Mars could be better spent to, say, develop the technology to harvest trees sustainably or to cultivate bluefin tuna on farm.
 
The resource on Earth would have to be compelling and unique, like unobtainium on Pandora in the movie Avatar. And even then, the bad humans were not really out to destroy the Na’vi, who were in the way.
 
Earth as a nice place to colonize is perhaps the strongest argument for hostile aliens, and that’s not a very strong argument. The odds that Earth’s biosphere safely matches that of the alien’s home planet is low.  (Remember what happened in H.G. Wells’s War of the Worlds?) And I’ll lean on the economic argument again and say that managing your home world is more cost-effective than finding a new one.
 
Considering the vast distances of interstellar flight, a space-faring species not only would have to have advanced technology, but they also must have managed to avoid destroying themselves, as technological civilizations are capable of doing. Aggressive, colonizing species would likely have wiped themselves out long before getting near our neighborhood. This standard SETI argument, reiterated here by Jill Tarter, director of the SETI Institute, in response to Hawking’s comments, still sounds pretty convincing to me.
 
By the way, if you want to know what first-contact missions are really like, and how dangerous they can be, read "A Prime Directive for the Last Americans" or the accompanying Q&A with Sydney Possuelo, the Brazilian researcher who made contact with indigenous Amazonian tribes living a hidden, stone-age existence.

Image: Amateur-made portrait of Na’vi. Harry Nguyen/Wiki Commons





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  1. 1. Nathaniel 5:13 pm 04/29/2010

    We want to think that these aliens would be ethical, that they would do the right thing and be nice. However, keep in mind that regardless of who/what is making the ethical judgments, being ethical is not always easy while being unethical is often very easy.

    There is also the concept of ethics as something which is objective, existing outside us. That being "good" and being a "good human" are two different things just as much as being a "good human" and being a "good ant" are two completely different things. I would imagine that being a "good alien" is also very different from being a "good human" and different from being objectively "good".

    Keep in mind that the systems of ethics that humanity has been discovered/invented have been developed inside humanities realm of experience. Without getting the input from other ethical creatures, we have no idea what they might come up with. Their ethical concerns may be entirely different from our own. In other words we may encounter an alien species whose concept of "good" does not align with our own, heck, they may have no concept of "good" at all (although I doubt that).

    Also, there’s the very real chance that the aliens would look at us, see what we’re doing to the unique wildlife on this planet, and wipe us all out to save them.

    There are several possible scenarios where human life faces danger from alien life. However, we if treat all aliens as potential threats, we won’t make very many friends. If they are advanced enough to get here, they are advanced enough to wipe us all out with the blink of an eye. We’re better off being nice and sucking up than expecting that they’re an enemy. That way, on the off chance, they do come in peace, we don’t start any unnecessary conflicts. The bad ones will do what they will do and we won’t be able to stop them, so it wouldn’t really hurt to try and be diplomatic.

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  2. 2. AlanRLindsay 5:48 pm 04/29/2010

    I think Hawking’s main point is that we know nothing about the typical characteristics of technologically advanced species other than our own. We are working from a sample of one.

    We have no reason to assume that if aliens did travel here that they would be able to easily return to their point of origin. They could be making a 1-way trip via a wormhole or generational ship. If such voyages take a hundred years or more, those aliens would not have detected radio waves or other indications of earthly technology before their departure. Imagine their surprise to find us occupying what they had expected to be their new home.

    Perhaps those would be colonists would just say "oops, didn’t know you were here. Our bad". Maybe not.

    I don’t think Hawking argued that aliens were likely to be aggressive, but that they might be. He called not for xenophobia, but for caution. He knows a lot, but perhaps his real genius is his grasp of what we don’t know.

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  3. 3. hb1968 8:31 pm 04/29/2010

    Look man,Hawking is one of the smartest humans that ever lived,but still,his is just an opinion,it may be correct,and then again,it may be totally wrong.Problem with humans is that we give "human" face and mind to everything,so if the aliens come they’ll want to enslave us.Why?Beacuse that’s what we do to all those weaker then we are.I was really surprised to hear this coming from this guy,but I guess it just shows us that he is still "only human".

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  4. 4. Wayne Williamson 8:31 pm 04/29/2010

    saw the show the other night…reminded me of the 4th of july flick….(ps…loved it;-)

    1. it is our future to expand into space…may not be for 10..100..1k..etc…years…(like a lot of people i want it yesterday)

    2. its very probable that earth type resources would not be a big draw…more likely the ort cloud would be easier to "mine"

    3. it is highly probable that within our own galaxy there are advance beings a billion years beyond us in tech…just think about that….

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  5. 5. fisixisfun 9:23 pm 04/29/2010

    I don’t know if someone in comments 11-35 brought this up, but no one in the first 10 has, so I will. I remember another program on the Discovery Channel in which a scientist used the analogy: when we are putting in a freeway, do we stop at every ant hill and try to communicate with it? No, we just pave over them, we usually don’t even realize they are there. A Type III civilization is far more removed from us than we are from ants, in terms of energy, intelligence, etc. If a Type III civilization came to our solar system, they might destroy us by accident, with no feelings of malice whatsoever, just putting in a cosmic freeway or something.

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  6. 6. fb36 10:46 pm 04/29/2010

    Of course it is ridiculous to think aliens would not come here all the way just for some resources. That is not the point of Hawking. They would want to invade Earth to live here permanently as a new home! Just like similar things happened here on Earth in the past. That is Hawking’s real point. Obviously an Earth like planet is a really rare resource in the Universe. So it would be incredibly valuable to almost any alien civilization.

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  7. 7. fb36 10:55 pm 04/29/2010

    If Mars was an Earth like planet w/ a low-tech population, what would happen? I think many countries would start racing w/ each other about who would get more territory there!

    So it is not about harvesting fish etc. in there; it is all about gaining permanent territory!

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  8. 8. fb36 11:10 pm 04/29/2010

    Even more reason to invade Earth would be to use it as a new base to jump even farther planets.

    Trying to ridicule Hawking? What a courage!

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  9. 9. tomaskojar 11:19 pm 04/29/2010

    Just the biodiversity of our planet Earth is enough for any alien civilizatoin to travel millions of light years to utilize and experiment with natures random ingenuity, if not already

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  10. 10. jimhenson 11:22 pm 04/29/2010

    I worked many years for two relatives paving parking lots. One day there was a field we had to pave filled with grasshoppers. they got in and all around the barber green, and we discussed what to do. My uncle compared it to his experience in WWII when Patton had the mules killed to cross the bridge. I wanted to but couldn’t just quit working my job that day, they’d have still finished the job. I doubt anybody unless the owner paying the bid knew grasshoppers would be burned to death and suffocated. A type III civilization might no longer care about organic carbon suffering in a life where the universe is infinite and they will surely die too.

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  11. 11. tulcak 4:06 am 04/30/2010

    does Hawking not include "social advancement" in his thinking…? or, is he only including "technological advancement" in his thinking?

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  12. 12. sofistek 5:47 am 04/30/2010

    I’m not convinced that an intelligent civilisation that is still gallivanting around the galaxy has learned about sustainability. It either has vast resources on its home planetary system or has plundered the resources of other planetary systems, possibly at the cost of any inhabitants of those systems.

    So it seems wrong to assume that a spacefaring species must be benign because it hasn’t destroyed itself.

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  13. 13. karicwilson 8:06 am 04/30/2010

    Comments from someone like Hawking just serves to fuel the military machine and starwars mentality. If we keep going that way we may in fact attract a destroyer as Stanton Friedman once suggested. He maintained that ever since the atomic testing era and development of such devastating technology someone out there may be watching. This is backed up by the huge number of UFO sightings that went hand in hand with this part of human development.

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  14. 14. Anonymous LJ 9:00 am 04/30/2010

    This is my view: Determinism is the philosophical view that every event, including human cognition (OR!! Alien beings), behavior, decision, and action, is causally determined by prior events. If the
    evolution of every process, organism and species in our universe and any other multiverse obeys this law. A spies’ evolution is progressive in time then the by the law of determinism the dinosaurs was a species
    in this universe and the perhaps the multiverse that, could have evolved into intelligent beings long before us ape like creatures appeared on the planet, if say that rock never wiped them out.
    This further leads me to say that if a species more intelligent than humans are right now inhabiting the ocean depts, a place us primitive beings can’t explore as yet given our infant evolutionary science.
    They may have been on the planet millions of years before us and after the dinosaurs.

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  15. 15. tom94 9:07 am 04/30/2010

    @flamingpope: those other branch of science rely in physics…right?

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  16. 16. tom94 9:09 am 04/30/2010

    @FLAMINGPOPE: those other branch of science are all based in physics. Right?

    I believe in Mr. Stephen

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  17. 17. tom94 9:19 am 04/30/2010

    @flamingpope: those other branch of science are all based in physics. Right?

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  18. 18. dilco2 9:43 am 04/30/2010

    i agree with howks we shouldn’t think about contacting other life out of this planet. i believe there is more out there, but we should not think about them.

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  19. 19. rrogers 12:37 pm 04/30/2010

    I’m afraid I go along with Hawking. All the contrary arguments are good. But if our neighbours were charitable souls; why the silence? Yes the chances of eavesdropping are small, for a number of reasons, but why haven’t any neighbours mad the extra effort? Could it be that Hawking is close to the mark? Of course everybody in our neighbourhood apparently belongs to a group that was formed within a short period of time; but the older groups could set up obvious beacons. It’s a mystery; perhaps some caution is called for?
    For example take Hawking’s case. A species who’s space living has little more motivation than bacteria; just reproducing and expanding until raw materials run out. Of course bacteria wouldn’t be attracted by our broadcasts.
    And so on.
    Ray

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  20. 20. ColinB 2:57 pm 04/30/2010

    Most comments are built on the assumption that aliens are like us, physically, emotionally, economically (i.e. socially). That’s not reasonable. Others are built on the assumption that space travel is expensive. It isn’t. It’s only expensive if you want to send a lot of mass. If you send a tiny little mass and a lot of information about how to use the mass available at the destination, the cost is low. When we send out information about ourselves, we’re also sending information about our planet, i.e., if it’s worth sending that little package of mass to Earth. Hawking is correct.

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  21. 21. rajnish 10:39 am 05/1/2010

    He has been in the chair almost for his lifetime and his zeal for life has been inspiration for me and I don’t know who else. All my love to him and life.

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  22. 22. Terence Kuch 11:02 am 05/1/2010

    "Aggressive, colonizing species would likely have wiped themselves out long before getting near our neighborhood." Right. That’s why we’re not going to be a threat to the rest of the galaxy.

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  23. 23. deepthinker 5:41 pm 05/1/2010

    Hawking didn’t mean that the aliens were coming from their planet to take our resources just for the heck of it. He referred to the fact that they no longer had any resources on their own planet and travel to and fro for more building materials and if they come to our planet and are that advanced then were not going to do to well. So when you want to try and debunk some one you need to first look at the whole picture, not just a narrow view of what you see.

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  24. 24. edibleaids 11:27 am 05/2/2010

    Or they could just be Prawns.

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  25. 25. zooperman 5:27 pm 05/2/2010

    Space travelers will reach our world in virtual space ships. They will not be physically present so there will be no biological contamination in either direction. Virtual space travel will be faster, cheaper and safer.

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  26. 26. DavidPun 8:37 pm 05/2/2010

    Its all very interesting in a pseudo-science sort of way, but on the basis that we don’t really understand our own origins, we have no idea how many life compatible planets there are, we have no idea how unique or common life forms would be, we currently have no scientific basis at all for speculating about the existence of aliens let alone any of their higher level characteristics. These speculations can be fun and are relatively harmless, but the problem with people like Stephen Hawking speculating on them is that people sometimes abandon scientific rigor simply because a famous scientist talks about it. Even a Stephen Hawking does not get a free pass on real science. Real science is about theories backed by data.

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  27. 27. Xenologer 1:20 am 05/3/2010

    Alien civilizations are just that… alien. We can’t possibly begin to imagine their evolution, their mentality, their culture, their morals, their motives. Stephen Hawking can get all the doctorate degrees he wants, in the end, his speculations are as good as the next person’s. Even probability isn’t reliable here, as we have no sample base to go on but our own, a decidely HUMAN error.

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  28. 28. Xenologer 1:42 am 05/3/2010

    Assuming the Earth is rare is a fallacy. What sort of sample do we have to work with? One solar system? So far, considering the sample, we have a 100% chance of being completely common! Do we know if Alpha Centauri or Epsilon Eridani, or Tau Ceti have any Earth-like planets? Not yet. Once we have a larger sampling to compare to, and find nothing, only then can we begin to assume Earth is some sort of rare gem. I think over the next decade, we’ll be pleasantly surprised with what sort of results programs like the TPF (Terrestrial Planet Finder) give us.

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  29. 29. gpb 12:25 pm 05/3/2010

    Humans must alway search for the truth even if it leads to our demise. If we didn’t search for answers we would still be in the dark jumping at shadows..

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  30. 30. like to read 4:04 pm 05/3/2010

    -over one billion microorganisms are expected to be found in one liter of water,this fact in combination with the reality that other planets with liquid water like our own H2O have been found and the fact that NASA now has a specific department called ‘astrobiology’ up in plain view on their website makes it apparent,at least to me,that ‘alien’ life is almost a certainty.
    -as to the question of whether we should be courting interaction with species who have evolved on other planets. Quite frankly,if they have evolved with the technology and know-how to casually travel in mass numbers through space;they might find the ‘wonder’s of planet earth including the human species to be at best-primitive.
    It would be reasonable to expect that their ‘weapons’ would be much more advanced than anything we currently have on earth and I can see how the view of the human species as ‘inferior’ would be a real threat to the global future.Just look at the way humans treat non-human species;using them for food,placing them in zoos,disregarding animal habitats for our own use-and these are the animals that pose us no direct harm.If they(aliens) are at least as evolved as humans are,our own history of species-ism is going to work against us if we find ourselves competing for earth based resources with them or worse ,on some ring of their food/vital resource chain.

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  31. 31. like to read 4:22 pm 05/3/2010

    http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=2902AAB5-E7F2-99DF-3274E06F44746D13

    some more food for thought.i mean really? are we sure we want what’s out there to find us?

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  32. 32. ColinB 5:36 pm 05/3/2010

    I agree with Xenologer’s comments. Hawking is still right, though, because he’s focusing on the entire problem, not just the upside. There is a downside to broadcasting in a universe that may contain beings like ourselves. (You may want to talk to the ants in my garden if you don’t believe that.) The downside of searching for new worlds and listening to signals from those worlds, on the other hand, is zero. That may well be why we haven’t heard anything. We should shut up and listen.

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  33. 33. EBTed 6:45 pm 05/4/2010

    First the adventurers looking for treasure. Didn’t the Spanish cut off one foot from the Indians who opposed their treasure seeking in the 1600′s in the American Southwest? Then after the first wave of conquerors come the second wave made up of settlers.

    With the settlers came educated men and "godly" men came with the best intentions signing treaties and no way to stop the third wave of greedy hordes following after them when something else of value was discovered. When the natives get in the way they are destroyed. Isn’t that what happened to the Black Hills in the United States? Adios to the treaties…

    The aggressive second sons of the aliens will be coming to get their plantation to show up the older brother back on some world orbiting Alpha Centauri Just like in the early United States and every other British colony. That’s assuming the aliens don’t just wipe out the infestation of humans that they could easily regard as wolves were regarded until very recently. You’d be lucky to even be considered up to the Mayan level or even a low land gorilla standard by them.

    The character played by Annette Benning in Mars Attacks reminds me of those who laugh at Prof. Hawking. The cattle herd set on fire and running in terror is the image to remember – Not this baloney about friendship between us and some culture a million years more advanced.

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  34. 34. jonathanseer 9:37 am 05/7/2010

    One thing is certain our imagination is clearly too limited to perceive aliens advanced enough to travel space/time.

    Everything I read seems to create a human-equivalent species with advanced technology, but NOT truly advanced species.

    We assume they live in a similar time frame. Why?

    What if they didn’t conquer faster than light travel, but instead learned how to live virtually forever.

    Once acheived their sense of the "now" could disconnect their reality from ours even while sharing the same space.

    An hour for them could be a human lifetime.

    A day for them would be a millennium.

    Actions they’d undertake would escape our notice or be perceived as natural events not the actions of living beings.

    The actions we’d undertake could conceivably be almost as hard to track.

    For many of the huge changes in our world have happened in a human lifetime. If that is an "hour" to them, they’d be hard pressed to catch it all while it was happening around them.

    Our populating of the Earth to them could seem like changes happening over a fortnight. One day we were not here, the next day we’re all over the place.

    They could be fully telepathic and deem any form of life that does not communicate this way as basic animals not deserving any consideration as intelligent.

    Being telepathic they could extend themselves over vast distances without physically going there by creating mental bridges from magnetic fields in outer space. Life generates a magnetic field.

    A vastly greater intellect would probably find a way to actively manipulate magnetic fields to make traveling space/time a function of the mind not the physical entity.

    We somehow are certain that an alien would be a creature we could perceive.

    We consider ourselves very close to mastering the physics of invisibility, yet no one thinks what about an alien species that mastered that 1000 yrs. ago, where would they be now in that technology?

    We assume that alien life would consider us "intelligent" says who?

    We dismiss all other sorts of intelligence on this planet as irrelevant when compared to our own.

    Why are we so certain that aliens wouldn’t dismiss us as advanced animals not deserving the same rights as they being an advanced civilization.

    Clearly we humans are profoundly conceited.

    Seti’s reasoning is baseline naive.

    It rests on absolutely nothing other than "it sounds sensible."

    The notion Earth has nothing aliens would want assumes we know the alien mind.

    Maybe one day we will advance enough to imagine aliens that aren’t mirror images of ourselves.

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  35. 35. dru100 12:39 pm 05/7/2010

    the universe has i finite energy source if alien’s are intellegent would they want to share with a greedy bunch of corbon based bipods i think not

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  36. 36. dru100 12:41 pm 05/7/2010

    the universe has i finite energy source if alien’s are intellegent would they want to share with a greedy bunch of corbon based bipods i think not

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  37. 37. spongos 7:33 pm 05/11/2010

    first of all, if the alien spicies ran out of resources or was running dangerously low on them, the cost of space travel would be nothing compared to the extinction of their race.

    Secondly what if alien religion X opposed all other religions (9/11, crusades) or all members of a different race (holocost)
    or religion X prmoted welcoming all other spicies into the intergalactic community.

    Also, a race for land may drive expansion. If anyone else concidered the fact that all of the spicies are divided into countries like ourselves, maybe 2 countries are competing for land and will stomp out lesser civilizations like France and Britan for a very long piriod of time.

    Finally, potection, such as refuges from a tyranical government or a losing side of a war coming for help, could lead a spicies to meet with us or simply for the reason of an allience or trade are just some reasons that an alien may want to meet with us

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  38. 38. spongos 7:52 pm 05/11/2010

    not to search for intellegent would be avoiding discovery and learning which is what happened during the dark ages

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  39. 39. spongos 8:47 pm 05/11/2010

    everyone seems to think the aleins are more advanced in all fields. they think the aliens have supirior wepion tech if they have supior transportation tech. the aliens will have invented
    what they needed to invent to adapt. maybe they have supirior transportation but are still in the days of bows and aarrows because they never thought about it.

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  40. 40. HobbesDoo 3:26 am 05/23/2010

    This concept that we’re limiting ourselves from moving forward and enhancing ourselves because of our economy truly amazes me.

    Most likely an alien race that mastered space travel must also have mastered most of their problems too. I’m leaning towards the idea they would be explorers, but the real problems are possible interspecies bugs and differences in culture so deep that understanding each other would be near impossible.

    We’ll need more time to evolve and solve our problems. I have a feeling we will.

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  41. 41. Pavan Krishnan 7:32 pm 05/25/2010

    I believe that if unless one knows the other’s motives, one has no conclusion of the other’s act.

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  42. 42. Wiz 3:54 pm 06/3/2010

    Physical items such as water, human flesh, wood or metal would indeed be too expensive to ‘come and get’. But what of things that could be truly unique to our planet, such as imagination, art, ability to willingly cooperate or literature. This would be novel to a species without these abilities. The real danger would be from a collective species with no concept of death as we know it.

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  43. 43. Wiz 9:37 pm 06/4/2010

    The real danger would be to make contact with a collective species that has no concept of death, where the loss of an individual unit would be no more important than us clipping a toenail.

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  44. 44. WHD2 12:19 pm 06/14/2010

    This update contains a total refutation of Stephen Hawking claims regarding Black Holes upon which he has staked his entire reputation and exposes him as a total fraud from a to Z in addition to including the truth regarding UFOs and Extraterrestrial Life:

    Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics

    The Capitalist Dictatorship Falsifies Basic Science!
    Michio Kaku, Wendy Freedman, Dennis Overbye, Nicholas
    Wade, Brian Greene, etc. Are Exposed as Liars!

    Today basic medicine, science including climatology, astrophysics and even both Einstein’s Special Theory and General Theory of Relativity are brazenly and routinely falsified at the direction of genuinely Fascist elements for political/religious reasons. These scientifically fabricated and bizarre distortions are mixed in with some actual science and are passed off as “the new science” in exhaustive falsifications lasting for hours on NOVA, FRONTLINE, National Geographic Channel, CUNY TV, the “Discovery Channel” and even the so-called “History Channel.” There is also a simultaneous attempt to generate panic in order to help generate the Mass Psychology of Crisis based on falsely claimed imminent threats from space from rogue asteroids to Stephen Hawking’s alarmist claim of future invasions by inevitably hostile space aliens. See section on UFOs and Extraterrestrial Life. In addition, the above-mentioned so-called “cosmologists” publish an endless stream of books, videos and magazine and newspaper articles to try to popularize this fiction and pass it off as good coin. Not to mention the new textbooks! The media, including the science media is simply a privatized arm of the U.S. “intelligence agency,” an actual army of legions of professional liars in every area of politics and every academic discipline and includes even so-called “comedians” working in service to the capitalist dictatorship of millionaires and billionaires. The U.S. media is very similar to Blackwater, Dyncorp, Custer Battles and Triple Canopy, etc. the armed military contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan, except that the media has always been privatized. Can you say Total Brainwash of the youth? Not to mention the adult population!

    There is also a maximal attempt to confuse the masses in order to keep them susceptible to the constant stream of lies originating from NASA and the U.S. government, which have threatened to ram through a revisit of the Moon and have even tried to pump up support for a Mars mission! (?) There is no possibility that a manned trip to Mars would ever return. Rocketry is a primitive form of space travel and there is no acknowledged attempt of efforts to develop the nuclear powered electromagnetic anti-gravity engine used by so-called UFOs, which are documented to have visited the Earth for Millennia. Moon and Mars trips obviously make no sense except to keep NASA and its suppliers in business and are one more pretext to divert money from social spending and to boost U.S. patriotism. Under public pressure the Obama Regime has supposedly cancelled the Moon and Mars ventures and but states that it will privatize the role of NASA going even further than Bush in privatization schemes for the U.S. government. (See below.) The widespread academic opposition to these wide-scale falsifications of science and money wasting ventures is never given equal time! We demand and will take some time to refute the U.S.-led capitalist dictatorship’s lies.

    The Capitalist Dictatorship’s Attempt to Falsify the
    Age of the Universe to Help Provide False Belief in “god”

    The capitalists have tried to falsify the actual age of the Universe and the infinite cycle of a Big Bang followed by a Big Crunch, meaning a closed rather than an open Universe, because the reality of a closed Universe does not fit with the religious brainwash of a single creation and belief in a supernatural fictitious “god.” (The statecraft of capitalism’s alliance with religion and belief in “god” and other superstition is exposed further below.) The reality is that the process of contraction of the Universe began soon after the Big Bang, which began the process of expansion. The process of contraction began with the first condensations of gas after the Big Bang. At first the process of expansion was dominant, but the processes of expansion and contraction exist simultaneously from shortly after the Big Bang until finally the process of contraction becomes dominant and all galactic matter is finally drawn into Supermassive Black Holes, which today form the centers of all spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies in the process of becoming spiral galaxies. These Supermassive Black Holes, which are growing larger continuously, finally link up all existing matter of the Universe at one spot, one huge super-maximal Black Hole known as the Singularity in the Big Crunch, at which time critical mass in the true and ultimate sense is reached for another Big Bang Cycle and the beginning of another Universe.

    Ninety-five Percent of Matter in the Universe Exists in the Form of Energy According
    To Einstein’s Formula E=mc2! Black Holes Completely Reverse that Relationship and
    Solve the Equation for Mass: M=E/c2 thus Supplying the so-called “Missing Mass”!

    The critical mass density required for the Big Crunch to occur is 1 x 10 to the negative 29th of a gram per cubic centimeter (approximately 5 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter), according to the calculation from the General Theory of Relativity, which predicted Black Holes. Neutrinos are now known to have mass which may be sufficient to supply the supposed “missing mass.” (See below.) But probably even more significant is the recent paper in Science (November 21, 2008) which shows that 95% of matter in the Universe exists in the form of energy according to Einstein’s formula E=mc2. This relationship would reverse in a Black Hole and the so-called “missing mass” would gradually appear as the contraction of the Universe allowed the energy-mass relationship to shift so that in a practical and real sense Einstein’s formula would be solved for mass: m=E/c2. Though the authors of the paper fail to draw this conclusion that is the inescapable significance of those papers. See below. The fact that the expansion and contraction of the Universe occur simultaneously is one more example of the Law of Unity of Opposites, the Second Law of and Historical Materialism and the correctness of the scientific philosophy of Dialectical and Historical Materialism, as opposed to the false philosophies of idealism and metaphysics, which are the only philosophies permitted to be seriously taught in U.S. colleges and universities, and which form the underlying basis for all phony “cosmological” theory! See further below!

    Black Holes Have Mass and a Size, Which
    Can Be Calculated, and Rotate on an Axis!

    In addition, in the Big Crunch matter most certainly does NOT collapse to “less than the size of a single molecule,” a totally ridiculous assertion by the so-called “string theorists” (see below) designed to try to discredit the Theory of the Big Bang/Big Crunch Cycle of the Universe. The Black Hole in the center of the Milky Way Galaxy is 15 million miles in diameter–not “the size of a single molecule”! Black Holes are formed exclusively of condensed nuclear material; protons and neutrons (composed of quarks) and electrons (composed of leptons) devoid of their orbits and all motion, all collapsed together. The end point of all matter in the Big Crunch is a Single Black Hole, the so-called “Singularity.” The size of the final “Singularity” which forms prior to the Big Bang would thus be quite large because it must contain all the nuclear material in the entire Universe. All Black Holes have the same mass density, which is said to be infinite, and which vary only in actual mass depending on how many stars and how much nuclear material they contain. The only difference is the difference in mass, which is constantly increasing as matter changes from its energy form when entering a Black Hole. See above cited article in Nature, November 21, 2008. Note that while some of the information provided below may appear to be somewhat technical it is necessary for any subsequent challenges which might be made of this dialectical and historical materialist analysis. An educated reader should be able to understand most of it and follow for the most part the explanations, which have in turn vast political implications. A few key references are provided and the reader can research the area independently.

    Black Holes have mass and size just as neutron stars (pulsars) also have mass!! All Black Holes, both Stellar Black Holes and Supermassive Black Holes (the result of combination of millions of solar masses) which form the center of evolving elliptical galaxies and all spiral galaxies, also rotate extremely rapidly just like neutron stars, some of which are estimated to be only 8 to 20 miles in diameter, and rotate in 1.4 milliseconds to 30 seconds! Black Holes rotate as fast or faster. All stars rotate on a central axis to some degree due to the angular momentum of gas approaching the center of the proto-star prior to the ignition of hydrogen fusion. In other words the gravitational collapse of gas in star formation is not uniform just as its opposite, an explosion such as the Big Bang is not uniform. When the radius of the star is reduced drastically in stellar collapse the angular momentum remains the same but the momentum of inertia is sharply reduced. The standard example is that of a figure skater spinning with outstretched arms who speeds up by pulling in his/her arms. Black Holes are formed from the collapse of the largest Blue Giant stars 5 to 20 or more solar masses. Neutron stars are formed from the explosion of stars with 1.35 to 2.1 solar masses in a Type II, Type Ib or Type Ic supernova explosion. The rapid rotation of Supermassive Black Holes is in fact the reason Spiral Galaxies exist in the flattened disk form they do with spiral arms–because of the huge gravitational force exerted by the rapid rotation of Supermassive Black Holes which form their galactic centers! As mentioned this fact is entirely covered up and denied by the phony NASA “scientists” on television, e.g., National Geographic TV. As the rotating Supermassive Black Hole in the galactic center gradually increases in size through accumulation/accretion of more stellar material and gas, the early elliptical galaxies, in the process of becoming a spiral galaxies, begin to flatten due to the rapid rotation of the Supermassive Black Hole in their center which causes the flattening. It should also be noted that as would be expected there exist a high number of stellar black holes in the galactic center drawn by their strong gravitational fields on their way to join the central Supermassive Black Hole. According to observations of the Chandra X-Ray Telescope released in a July 16, 2005 report there are 10,000 stellar black holes along with numerous neutron stars orbiting the Supermassive Black Hole in the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy, officially designated Sagittarius A (SGR A)! The Supermassive Black Hole at the center of the Milky Way has a mass of 3.7 million solar masses. The largest known Supermassive Black Hole in the OJ 287 Quasar contains 18 billion solar masses!

    The spiral arms comprised of outlying stars are formed by the combination of the gravitational force coming from the rapidly rotating galactic center and the relative gravitational attraction of one outlying star to another based on their actual distances from one another. As the outlying stars approach neighboring stars due to gravity this leaves other areas where stars are much less concentrated giving rise to the appearance of usually 2 major spiral arms originating from each end of the central bar often found in the galactic center, as well as several minor spiral arms, all of which are actually in the process of being gradually drawn inexorably toward the galactic center. The gravitational force of the Black Hole, the mass of which is steadily increasing, gradually overcomes the outward centrifugal force caused by its rapid rotation.

    Central bars form after the Supermassive Black Hole in the center of a large spiral galaxy reaches a certain size and are therefore found more prevalently in more massive galaxies where the required mass is reached sooner. Central bars form when stellar orbits in a spiral galaxy become unstable and deviate from a circular path. The tiny elongations in the stars’ orbits grow and become locked into place, forming a bar. The bar becomes even stronger as it locks more and more of these elongated orbits into place. Eventually a high fraction of the stars in the galaxy’s inner region join the bar. The galactic center thus attracts both gas and stars. This concentration of gas at the center of spiral galaxies does result in the formation of new stars but does not represent the primary or original source of star formation, which occurs in the beginning of formation of galaxies from gravitational condensation and collapse of primordial gas clouds. The central bars draw a large amount of gas towards the galactic center, fueling this new star formation, building central bulges of stars, and feeding the Supermassive central black hole. The formation of a bar may be one of the last stages in the evolution of a spiral galaxy prior to its eventual total collapse entirely into its central Supermassive Black Hole.

    Information Overload by NASA and U.S. Government Propagandists is used to Distract
    Focus Away from the Significance and Central Role Black Holes Play in the Process
    Of Contraction of the Universe which Finally Becomes Dominant in the Big Crunch!

    In the interest of accuracy and it is also important to mention that this information is being misused by NASA and other U.S. government propagandists to try to distract from and obscure the significance of black holes and the central role black holes play in the process of contraction of the Universe, which ultimately becomes dominant over the simultaneous process of expansion. First, it is a fact that matter generally enters a black hole through a combination of both gravitation and magnetism. Matter in the accretion disk, which spins around the black hole, can only enter the black hole after it loses its angular momentum. The inertia of the material in the accretion disk keeps it spiraling in a disk rather than falling straight into the black hole. The inertia in turn is due to the mass of the material in the disc and the gravitational field caused by the extremely rapid rotation of the black hole itself. An accretion disc is a rotating disk of gas, dust and other matter that may form around any of a variety of stars or other massive objects from protostars to white dwarfs to neutron stars to stellar black holes and Supermassive Black Holes and even quasars (see below). While the accretion disc of a young star or protostar usually contains dust which later consolidates or accretes to form planets and other objects, the accretion disk of a black hole, which may also contain stars, feeds matter directly into the black hole.

    According to a report in the July 22, 2006 Nature, and another 2008 paper by F. Casse Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 124020 (9pp) confirming the 1973 theory of Starobinsky and Churilov, the spinning gas in an accretion disc generates its own magnetic field which powers a wind of charged particles directed away from the black hole. The wind of charged particles transfers angular momentum from the inner regions of the disk outward in a twin jet phenomenon perpendicular to the plane of the accretion disk allowing angular momentum to be conserved, meaning to remain balanced or constant. This transfer of angular momentum outward slows down the spinning gas near the center, allowing gravitation to draw matter into the black hole. The magnetic field also causes turbulence and friction to build up within the disk. The friction heats up the gas to millions of degrees, causing it to glow brilliantly in the ultraviolet and X-ray bands. In Supermassive Black Holes large jets of plasma flow away from the accretion disc perpendicular to its center at almost the speed of light. These jets of plasma travel outward along the magnetic field lines which are twisted by the rotating accretion disk. It should be noted that the material which flows outward in the jets represents only a tiny amount of material extracted from the accretion disk. (Plasma, which is found in the accretion disk closest to the black hole, is a partially ionized gas, where a certain proportion of electrons are free, not being bound to atoms or molecules, unlike the gas form of matter. This permits electrical conduction of magnetic fields. Plasma is considered the fourth state of matter in addition to solid, gas and liquid.

    Redshift Measurement of Quasars puts
    The Age of the Universe at 28 Billion Years!

    The process where matter enters a black hole from its accretion disk may be greatly expanded during the formation of quasars where a Supermassive Black Hole at a galactic Center accretes a huge amount of matter in the order of billions of stars. When two black holes combine or a stellar black hole enters a Supermassive Black Hole in a galactic center the process causes the emission of radio waves and even visible light. When hundreds of millions to billions of stars and enormous amounts of gas first combine to create a Supermassive Black Hole in the center of a galaxy the energy released is exponentially increased and is known as a quasar. In a quasar this radiation is emitted across the entire spectrum almost equally, from X-rays to the far-infrared with a peak in the ultraviolet-optical bands, with some quasars also being strong sources of radio emission and of gamma-rays. Quasars are the most visibly luminous objects in the Universe and are also the strongest energy source in the Universe. A quasar is simply an accelerated process of formation of a Supermassive Black Hole in an early galaxy. The release of gravitational energy by matter falling towards a massive black hole in the formation of a quasar is the only process known that can produce such high power continuously, energy far greater than the fusion process which powers stars. Quasars easily outshine their host galaxies. (The light we see is from the huge superheated accretion disk, which is greatly enlarged due to the high density of matter in such galaxies. Stellar explosions such as Supernovas and gamma-ray bursts can create the same level of energy, but only for a few minutes. Gamma ray bursts are generated by hypernova, which are simply very large supernova, the collapse of a stars with masses 100 to 200 times that of the sun. Contrary to the lies designed to create confusion, which appear on the National Geographic so-called Discovery Channel “How the Universe Works” programs, not all early galaxies possessed enough mass to produce a quasar. There is no evidence for example, that the Milky Way Galaxy, as claimed by Micho Kaku & Co. was a quasar! The Supermassive Black Hole at its center is far too small! And the mass extinction on Earth 440-450 million years ago was undoubtedly NOT caused by a gamma ray burst from a hypernova, but from the continental drift of a large landmass (Gondwana) into the south polar region causing a global temperature drop, glaciation and lowering of sea level which destroyed 60% of habitats around the continental shelves at a time when all life was confined to the seas and oceans. Evidence documenting this was found in deposits in the Sahara Desert.

    All observed quasar spectra have red shifts between 0.06 and 6.5. Applying Hubble’s law to these red shifts, it can be shown that they are between 780 million and 28 billion light-years away, a measurement which is NOT due to gravitational lensing, although this has been reported for some extremely bright quasars. This is proof that the Universe itself is at least 28 billion years old! So the most recent “estimates” of the Hubble Constant and the actual age of the Universe by NASA, Wendy Freedman and company and the media (a privatized arm of the U.S. “intelligence community”) are obviously TOTALLY FALSE! (See below.) The process of quasar formation occurred regularly in the early Universe in the formation of galaxies with huge densely concentrated gas and stars. It should be obvious that the first galaxies to form in the Universe generally contained the highest volume and concentration of gas, which in turn created the highest concentration and densities of stars. The Supermassive Black Holes at the center of those early galaxies became quasars. Galaxies without such high densities of matter develop more along the lines of our own Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda, for example. Formation of galaxies is still occurring but generally they do not become quasars because the volume and density of gas is insufficient. An exception is 3C 273 in the constellation Virgo which is only 33 light years away with a luminosity equal to 2 trillion times that of our sun or about 100 times the total light of the Milky Way. Their discovery by Maarten Schmidt in 1967 was early strong evidence against the totally discredited steady state theory of Fred Hoyle, and in favor of the Big Bang Theory. Blazers, incidentally are the same as quasars but have their perpendicular jets in direct alignment with our galaxy, while quasars have their jets pointed away in another direction.

    As part of the escalating campaign of Big Lies, in March 2009 NASA made the totally disingenuous statement on a National Geographic Channel so-called “Naked Science” show that “while black holes are associated with galaxies we (who we?) do not yet know what that relationship is!” (!) And on May 17, 2010, Michelle Thaler of NASA disingenuously stated: “We do not know which comes first the galaxy or the Black Hole” (!) and further falsely stated that when 2 spiral galaxies collide the result is an elliptical galaxy “which does not spin!” This is another Big Lie and demonstrates a very systematized structure of lies. The truth is that the elliptical galaxy in this case is only a temporary structure. The Black Holes, which drove the 2 colliding spiral galaxies, combine and a larger spiral galaxy is formed. The motive for that feigned ignorance/Big Lie by the misnamed “intelligence community” is to try to obscure the documented reality that the matter of all galaxies is entering black holes as part of the ongoing contraction of the Universe, which begins shortly after the Big Bang and takes places simultaneously with the process of expansion and finally becomes dominant. As explained herein expansion of the Universe has slowed down enormously since the Big Bang and will be overtaken by the process of contraction until all mass in the Universe has again entered the final Black Hole, the so-called final Singularity in the Big Crunch. At that point there will be another Big Bang and another Universe will begin. In addition, NASA and other government propagandists have attempted to overemphasize the accretion disk/jet phenomenon and the huge energy produced as matter enters a black hole or quasar, almost to make it appear that black holes and quasars are “expelling” matter as much as drawing it in, virtually standing black holes on their head and falsely ascribing all sorts of false “observations” to black holes, in order to divert focus from the primary role of black holes as the mechanism or engine of contraction of the Universe and the beginning of the Big Crunch!

    One example is the false claim by the fraudster, James Geach, hyped in the July 7, 2009 New York Times by the determined “intelligence community” propagandist Dennis Overbye, that black holes fueled so-called Lyman alpha “blobs,” glowing clouds of gas in the early universe. But that lie was immediately refuted with the obvious explanation that cold gas streaming into a protogalaxy would heat up and glow from the gravitational energy alone! (See: “Lyman Alpha Blobs as an Observational Signature of Cold Accretion Streams into Galaxies” by Mark Dijkstra and Abraham Loeb, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, June 5, 2009.) These fraudulent NASA/U.S. government propagandists hope that most viewers know absolutely nothing and will believe virtually anything that they are told by someone claiming to be a “scientist” or “professor” and that most people will not do their own research, or will remain at least confused and vulnerable to their next bizarre fantastical claim. That is why the information which appears here should be forwarded by email and networked in every possible way nationally and internationally in order to counter the U.S. capitalist dictatorship’s Big Lies. The objective of the capitalist dictatorship is to render the population more susceptible to their lies in every area including politics and economics, which also have little to no basis in reality. The capitalist dictatorship also resorts to the come on of “naked science” in order to try to sex-up their Big Lie propaganda in theoretical astrophysics, while simultaneously presenting some truthful “Naked Science” reports in other areas and in other National Geographic programs in order to help their Big Lies blend in.

    In response to the heavy push on the so-called “History Channel,” etc. it should be noted that the Theory of the Big Bang was first proposed by Georges-Henri Lemaître, who had both a PhD in physics and was an ordained priest. Lemaître studied at the University of Leuven, the University of Cambridge, Harvard and MIT. The little read report was first published in 1927 in the Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles (Annals of the Scientific Society of Brussels) and later in Nature: G. Lemaître, The Beginning of the World from the Point of View of Quantum Theory, Nature” 127 (1931), n. 3210, pp. 706. Lemaître called it “the hypothesis of Primeval Atom” and also referred to it as "the Cosmic Egg exploding at the moment of the creation," with the word “creation” obviously reflecting his religious bias. As explained above the Universe did not originate from a single point less than the size of a single molecule as falsely proposed by the string theorists, who now are pushing Lemaître. As explained above the end point of all matter in the Big Crunch is a Single Black Hole, the so-called “Singularity.” As mentioned all Black Holes have the same mass density, which is said to be infinite, and which vary only in actual mass depending on how many stars and how much nuclear material they contain. The only difference is the difference in mass, which is constantly increasing as matter changes from its energy form when entering a Black Hole according to E=M/c2, Einstein’s formula from the Special Theory solved for mass. See cited article in Nature, November 21, 2008. The Singularity contains the combined mass of all nuclear material from all stars and gas in the Universe. The designation: “Big Bang Theory” first derived from a derogatory reference to the theory of an expanding Universe by Fred Hoyle on the BBC on March 1949 over 20 years after it was first proposed. The truth as explained above and herein is that the processes of expansion and contraction of the Universe coexist from shortly after the Big Bang until finally the process of contraction becomes dominant and there is a Big Crunch followed by another Big Bang and formation of another Universe.

    It is a fact that Lemaître applied Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity to Cosmology, but was NOT a spearhead of religion supposedly leading physics as Lemaître is presently falsely being portrayed on the so-called “History Channel.” Lemaître also preceded Edwin Hubble in deriving what became known as Hubble’s Law and even calculated the Hubble Constant but was not able to prove the linear relation which Hubble did in 1929. Lemaître has rarely been given the credit he is due for first proposing the Big Bang Theory for 3 reasons: 1.) The theory of an expanding Universe was opposed at the time he first proposed it by Einstein and others, 2.) For political-religious reasons explained herein the capitalist dictatorship has always opposed the Big Bang Theory because the natural logic of a Big Bang implies a Big Crunch and a cyclic nature of the Universe rather than a single creation which leaves the most room for “a creator” and 3.) U.S. nationalism/jingoism, where the U.S. capitalist dictatorship always prefers that whenever possible credit be given to an American. Edwin Hubble was an American lawyer. Although Lemaître had received numerous Belgian and international scientific honors only recently have the capitalists been pushing Lemaître in order to focus on the fact that he was a priest and that his theory speaks of a moment of “creation.” The so-called “History Channel” focuses on this language in an attempt to inject the sophisticated form of creationism/intelligent design also espoused by Francis Collins, Obama’s new choice for head of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). See below.

    The Hubble Constant is a calculation of the speed at which the Universe is expanding and is crucial in calculating the age of the Universe. Four methods have been used to estimate the Hubble Constant and age of the Universe. The most recent method employed by Allan Sandage, et al measures: 1.) the distances to Type 1a Supernovae explosions in distant galaxies and then 2.) confirms those measurements by comparing the relative luminosities of Cepheid variable stars as so-called “standard candles,” while Wendy Freedman’s NASA team uses Cepheid Variable stars alone, which is a lot less accurate. Freedman’s method especially is an easy method in which to either err or to deliberately falsify results as she and her NASA team have clearly done. (See below.) The typical errors in calculating the Hubble Constant include: 1.) “the universal, yet unjustified Period-Luminosity relation of Cepheid (variable stars), 2.) neglect of selection bias in magnitude-limited samples or 3.) the errors which are inherent to the adopted models, which cause most values of the Hubble Constant and corresponding estimates of the age of the Universe to be incorrect as explained in detail in the most comprehensive review which has yet been published, which also includes the Sandage team’s most recent calculation of the Hubble Constant to date of 62.3 +or-1.3, which is based on measurements to 279 galaxies: “The expansion field: the value of the Hubble Constant,” by G.A Tammann, A. Sandage and B. Reindl, Astron Astrophys Rev (2008), 8 July 2008, 15:289-331, DOI 10.1007/s00159-800-9912-y.

    This value of the Hubble Constant corresponds to an age of the Universe of approximately 13.7 billion years, which should be sufficient to permit the Big Crunch. However even this method of calculation of the Hubble Constant, which as exhaustively explained and documented by Allan Sandage et al, is fraught with potential errors cited above, which Sandage takes account of and systematically avoids. As mentioned above Wendy Freedman and Co. on the other hand use only Cepheid variable stars in their “calculations” and deliberately include faulty (fraudulent) data in their calculations as explained to this writer personally by Allan Sandage, therefore making Freedman & Co.’s method of determination of the Hubble Constant even easier to falsify. Such data is systematically excluded by Sandage, et al., as explained above. In response to the withering but suppressed critique by Sandage et al, known primarily only to other astrophysicists who follow these matters, Freedman has published a slew of pathetic papers addressing such topics as “correction of errors involving optical extragalactic background light (EBL), sampling-induced errors, magnitude errors, and random and optimal sampling,” etc. where she always comes up with ridiculously high (fraudulent) values for the Hubble Constant. Fraudulent data was necessary for Freedman & Co. to reinvent the entirely fictitious so-called “dark energy,” Einstein’s “Cosmological Constant,” (“My greatest blunder!” See below), which is declared to be “the opposite of gravity” and which has no scientific explanation whatsoever, but is falsely proffered as “the reason” the capitalist dictatorship and its media (and textbook) propagandists now falsely state that the expansion of the Universe has unexplainably “speeded up,” a “finding” which violates all previous findings not to mention all known rules of physics including the General Theory of Relativity! In other words this finding is totally invented, totally fabricated, a Big Lie to end all Big Lies! All designed to achieve political-religious-propagandistic objectives. See below. Legitimate opposing viewpoints are simply ignored and in practice not permitted to be heard! How jolly!

    Regarding the most recent results given above for the Hubble Constant, this writer would still prefer to accept Sandage’s previous calculation of 55 +or-5, which has been repeatedly established in papers from 1975, 1982, 1986, 1990 and 1995, although it may certainly be possible that the 62.3 +or-1.3 value is the most accurate and it is certainly can be argued that 55 +or-5 is not that far removed from the new figure. The reason for this caution is that Allan Sandage is now 82 years old and although he is 100% intellectually intact and in control of all of his faculties his name is listed second in the above paper indicating that he himself may not have collected the data used in the calculation giving 62.3 +or-1.3 for the Hubble Constant. This writer has not spoken or corresponded with the other members of his team, as this writer has, with Allan Sandage. Sandages’s team also often includes A. Saha who was not included in the above paper, so this writer can not rule out alteration of the raw data to give a falsely high Hubble Constant by certain personnel who might be bribed by the NASA forces in charge of the Key Project, which was set up determined to achieve a certain result come hell or high water. This issue is important enough to the capitalist dictatorship so that they would leave no stone unturned to tweek the results in their direction for reasons explained further below. In addition, we are reminded that the Redshift of some quasars actually puts the age of the Universe at 28 billion years! See above.

    The U.S. so-called “intelligence community” organized the so-called “Key Project” in order to cover up the cyclic nature of the Universe from Big Bang to Big Crunch. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was built primarily for the “Key Project.” This is an important point. The capitalist dictatorship chose Wendy Freedman to lead the project rather than the obvious choice, Allan Sandage, the legendary, most preeminent and world-renowned astrophysicist as well as the number one authority on the Hubble Constant along with his internationally renowned group of astrophysicist colleagues. See above. The reason was that Sandage’s studies up to that point had shown the Universe to be “between 14 and 18 billion years old, depending on what is assumed about the mass of the Universe.” This corresponds to a Hubble Constant, which he and colleagues had repeatedly calculated to be 55 +or-5 as cited above. An older age and smaller Hubble Constant, of course, would mean that the Universe contained easily enough matter to permit the Big Crunch, which is the key point the capitalist propagandists want to discredit because that would rule out a single creation and make the existence of a god, for which there is no scientific evidence whatsoever, even more unlikely! This is the actual statecraft behind the “Key Project.” See further below.

    Freedman’s initial claim that the Universe was only 8 billion years old was obviously fraudulent, as have been all of her subsequent “estimations.” All of Freedman’s estimations of the age of the Universe and the Hubble Constant have been designed to try to fraudulently invalidate (!) the Big Bang, the Big Crunch especially and the cyclic nature of the Universe in particular. The preposterous claim of an 8 billion year age is a direct attack on the Big Bang, which has been verified worldwide. In her initial unrestrained enthusiasm to falsify and misinterpret her own data (see above) Freedman forgot about the 1.) Red shift discovered by Edwin Hubble (see below) and 2.) the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation, which is the residual effect of the Big Bang both of which exist as irrefutable evidence for the Big Bang origin of the Universe! In January 2003 Freedman was made the Director of the Carnegie Observatories located in Pasadena, California where Allan Sandage works thereby placing her above him as a maneuver to make her fraudulent estimates of the Hubble Constant appear more authoritative in the public eye!

    Note that even AFTER the 1965 discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Penzias and Wilson and its confirmation by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite in 1989 that its measurement produced a curve precisely matching a Planck curve, which most scientists have accepted as proof that the radiation is indeed from the beginning of the universe, the capitalist dictatorship has still made efforts to continue to try to deny the existence of the Big Bang, even publishing books with 466 pages (!) attacking the Big Bang such as the 1991 rubbish: “The Big Bang Never Happened” (!) by the totally discredited Eric Lerner. Anyone using simple inductive reasoning would immediately begin to smell a rat! Since the capitalist dictatorship and its media have not been able to refute the Big Bang they have now focused all their efforts in trying to refute the Big Crunch. The capitalist dictatorship has a long history of political meddling and sabotage in virtually all fields of scientific and medical research and a history of using scientific advances against the masses in order to control them and also to reduce the population according to their own perceived needs, e.g. from Bio-warfare to Bio-fuels (through enforced starvation, falsely portrayed as seeking “energy independence” and “clean energy.”).

    NASA Propagandists Have Now Concocted the Fraudulent “theory of the
    Big Rip” In Order to Try to Counter the Reality of the Big Crunch and
    The Information which Appears Here now Found All Over the Internet!

    NASA in a new propaganda blitz using their standard Big Lie technique in order to try to refute the information, which appears here and all over the Internet, has pushed back hard with the totally discredited claims on the National Geographic Channel beginning in March 2009 that 1.) “dark matter” forms a supposed “filamentous superstructure” of the universe from the very beginning of the Big Bang until the present 2.) the fictitious “dark energy” will supposedly eventually “become so strong” that it will overcome all 4 primary forces including the strong force, which holds quarks and gluons together to form protons, neutrons and other particles, so that that the entire Universe will then supposedly “fly apart ripping apart galaxies, stars, planets and eventually every speck of matter in a fantastical end to time” in what the fraudulent propagandist Robert Caldwell describes as “the Big Rip.” This is also known as the theory of the flat universe. There is no “filamentous superstructure of the universe held together by dark matter.” And phantasmagorical images of galactic superclusters do NOT prove the existence of a “filamentous superstructure” and are simply a photographic effect due to the enormous luminosity of such dense accumulations of stars. As mentioned above the great wall of galaxies is not due to a “dark matter superstructure” but is simply due to the irregularities in the Big Bang explosion, which was not uniform as in any explosion. Such brainwash already appears in the astrophysics textbooks of the capitalist dictatorship! We recommend that it be exposed as a Big Lie whenever and wherever it is encountered.

    The capitalist cosmologists/propagandists have demonstrated that they can not coherently reply to any of the arguments advanced in this Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics except through contrived, feigned ignorance, information overload and MORE totally outrageous, bizarre Big Lies, which require a religious-like faith (in dark energy and dark matter, for example) to actually believe them–their overall objective in the first place as explained here. So do not be intimidated by the doctoral degrees which they award themselves or the exalted positions held by these above-mentioned frauds in order to try to legitimize their lies and to try to control and monopolize this field as they try to do with all others. These false propagandists/ “cosmologists” keep up a truly relentless barrage of lies in the major media and even physics journals and on TV with a never ending stream of phantasmagoric images blending and cascading one into another to try to help prove their scripted Big Lies, for example, the existence of “dark matter,” which they laughably claim is so dominant that it forms the “superstructure of the universe” but which they supposedly have only been able to detect as “two tiny pulses of heat deposited over the course of two years…” New York Times, December 18, 2009, a frankly pathetic false “finding” which the article admits is “no proof” but “tantalizing” (?) an adjective carefully chosen to try to make it appear as if everyone were are all rooting to try to prove their Big Lie. The reality is that there is no “dark matter.” Claims on the National Geographic Discovery Channel and elsewhere in April-May 2010 that “gravitational lensing and cosmological expansion rates” have “confirmed” its existence are totally fabricated! Gravity, not dark matter, is responsible for ALL gravitational lensing and that is where it gets its name. And there is NO “large halo of unseen matter (an oxymoron!) extending beyond the visible stars.” But according to Michio Kaku & Co., “Dark matter is in a struggle with dark energy and dark energy wins in the end in the Big Rip!” Not a WORD about gravity! And according to Michio Kaku and the NASA propagandists, eventually stars will all simply “blink out and the universe will be dark…again!? The age of stars will be over!” Kaku just makes it up in a jumble as he goes along. Anything for his cause! What is his cause? See below.

    It can also be predicted that the capitalist dictatorship will take over the science, if they have not already done so, of the new Large Hadron Collider, the world’s largest and highest energy particle accelerator in Geneva, Switzerland, when it finally goes on line in order to try to continue to concoct the existence of “dark matter” and “dark energy” as well as the “Higgs Boson,” the so-called “god particle,” which is reputed to be the particle which may impart mass to all other particles after the Big Bang. The Higgs Boson is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model in particle physics. At present there are NO known elementary scalar particles in nature. There are numerous Higgsless models, which do not depend on the Higgs Boson or Higgs Field. The top contender presently is the Three-Site Higgsless model. Whether or not the Higgs Boson exists or does not exist, its importance has been completely overstated in any case, in order that in the event of its discovery the media may falsely claim to have “proved” the existence of “god!” In any case, the Higgs Boson has absolutely nothing to do with “god” and no reputable physicist has ever made such a claim. The capitalist dictatorship is desperate and reeeediculous! So do not be intimidated by their Big Lies.

    Through brazen false arguments and bizarre false analogies these phony “cosmologists” who control the airways and media, have even attempted to up the ante and generate maximum confusion by trying to brainwash people into believing that the laws of physics and theoretical astrophysics, such as the Laws of Quantum Mechanics, the Special Theory of Relativity and General Theory of Relativity, etc. are “not immutable” and are in a process of “constant evolution” supposedly like species of animals in Charles Darwin’s “The Evolution of Species.” The laws of physical science are thus directly compared to the evolution of species of animals! Einstein therefore supposedly only has “temporary relevance” giving virtually every kind of science fiction a basis in “reality.” (See: “Beyond Einstein,” Discover Magazine, April 2010). Einstein is also falsely quoted as believing in god: “learning to read the laws of physics is like reading the mind of god.” See comprehensive section on Einstein.

    The author of the Discover Magazine article moreover disingenuously announces: “physicists should not spin any theories that require the existence of things such as multiverses, that cannot be disproved.” This carefully contrived statement implies that because “multiverses,” etc. supposedly cannot be disproved these fraudsters do not have to actually PROVE any piece of science fiction currently being passed off as “science.” They imply that is the duty of genuine theoretical physicists to disprove every false theory used to bombard the public domain by the misnamed, so-called “intelligence community” led by heavily hyped characters such as Michio Kaku. The Materialist Analysis of Theoretical Astrophysics disproves their primary concoctions and it is a rule of the Court that a witness caught in one lie in testimony does not merit any further credibility by the Jury. This is especially true in science where it is clear that, above all else, Kaku, & Co., are straining at the leash to inject confusion into basic physics and are forced to tell many lies in order to try to achieve their objectives. Their motives to create confusion are explained above. The title of the Discover Magazine article was incidentally borrowed from the very title of a 1987 book by “intelligence community” fraudster, Michio Kaku, wherein Kaku tried to popularize so-called “String Theory,” concocted in the effort to try to supplant Quantum Mechanics. See below. It should be noted that Kaku, who hides his specious, bogus so-called “Beyond Einstein science,” behind a phony slick, unctuously triumphal presentation, is equally at home passing off science fiction e.g. “parallel universes, time warps, time travel and the tenth dimension” as science as he is relentlessly fabricating false theories designed to compete with and supplant the natural laws of physics and to confuse as many people as possible behind a mantle of genuinely false knowledge. Based on only ONE non-cyclic Big Bang, “String Theory” is thus a back door to Creationism!

    There is no such thing as “Dark Energy” and the Universe has not suddenly increased its rate of expansion as falsely claimed by these frauds, as supposed “proof of its existence.” Just the opposite! The rate of expansion of the Universe has continued to slow since the Big Bang! All previous observations have indicated that is the case! While the Red Shifts of the most distant galaxies do indicate they are receding much more rapidly than closer galaxies this is because their light originated closer to the time of the Big Bang when the expansion rate was greater, but that is not the situation today. It should therefore be noted that although we may be able to receive light from galaxies which started its journey virtually at the beginning of the Universe, that light does not portray the reality at this point in time of that galaxy which was the source of that light. The reality is that today most of the Universe is undoubtedly relatively uniform in its development today except where there are huge clouds of gas from super novae explosions and where there are huge accumulations of matter such as the Great Wall of galaxies, the latter of which formed due to the irregularities which occurred in the Big Bang just as in any other explosion. In other words the light from our own galaxy, the Milky Way, would appear to an observer from the most distant galaxies to be receding at the same rate that their light is receding from our own galaxy! This should be a no-brainer but is rarely if ever mentioned. The only viewpoint which is ever mentioned is from the Earth as if it were the center of creation. Which it is not!

    The Universe is not open! Just like the Earth itself the spatial curvature of the Universe is NOT flat! It is closed. In reality there are no “multiple universes,” which “pop out of Black Holes” or by any other explanation. A Universe arises ONLY from a Big Bang! Although mass is infinite in a Black Hole (see above), Critical Mass does not exist! Critical Mass is attained only in the Final Singularity, when all matter in the Universe comes together in one spot in the Big Crunch prior to the Big Bang. The point when Critical Mass is reached is the point when a Big Bang occurs! See above. This is why the Large Hadron Collider cannot reproduce either the Big Bang or even a Black Hole. The reason for this is that even a Black Hole can form only when a Blue Giant star of sufficient mass collapses. This can not occur in the Large Hadron Collidor no matter how high the energies attained or how “large” the collidor itself may be claimed to be!!

    Stephen Hawking’s claimed existence of “exploding miniature Black Holes,” which “permit particles to leak out” in a quantum process” (!), eventually causing Black Holes to “EVAPORATE” (!), due to the pretentiously designated, so-called: “Hawking Evaporation,” or to “finally explode entirely” is based on fraudulent “String Theory” related mathematics and is baseless nonsense. Note that so-called “Hawking radiation” has NEVER BEEN OBSERVED and is ENTIRELY FICTITIOUS! Hawking’s wild claims were based on the fact that on a visit to the USSR in 1974 the Soviet physicist Alexander Starobinsky told Hawking that according to Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, rotating black holes should create and emit particles. (!) Oh? But the truth is that in a Black Hole or “Singularity” the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and all laws of physics DO NOT APPLY and DO NOT EVEN EXIST! Starobinsky should have known that fundamental fact but it cannot be ruled out that in the middle of the Cold War he may have recognized that Hawking was such a nut-job ego tripper that he would fall for virtually anything in order to make a big splash in physics. And the question immediately arises, if Starobinsky really thought he had made such a profound discovery why didn’t he come out with it himself? In any case there is no radiation whatsoever of any type emitted from any Black Hole itself! Nevertheless, such absurd and ridiculous claims are given credence in the media and given a heavy push on websites which permit NO COMMENT!

    And on that very same TV show on the highly discredited “Naked Science” National Geographic (Discovery) Channel it was stated, with NO PROOF WHATSOEVER and with no legitimate counter-arguments ever permitted, the totally bizarre claim that “String Theory” is “the best explanation of the origin of the Universe,” which it most certainly is NOT! On that program Hawking and “String Theorists” absurdly stated: “the Big Bang occurred when gravity weakened” (!) because “after the Big Bang gravity (supposedly) entered the 7 to 9 extra dimensions (in “String Theory”) and was weakened.” Duh! Such rubbish! (!) Finally, after presenting one concoction after another for almost an hour falsely dressed up as “science,” the April 20, 2010 “Naked Science” program (which is to be repeated!), apparently in a pathetic attempt to try to save face and keep some semblance of credibility among the growing majority of those who see through their lies, concluded with the unexpected disclaimer: “There is only one catch! There is no proof for any of this!” Right! But since then there have been no more disclaimers of these relentlessly pushed Big Lies! Parenthesis added.

    There is also no “time travel” in a practical sense either despite the phenomena of time dilation described in Einstein’s Special Theory and gravitational time dilation described in Einstein’s General Theory, which was actually confirmed in the Pound-Rebka experiment. And there are no “wormholes.” These fraudsters intone Einstein’s name by falsely claiming that there are two “valid solutions” to the General Theory of Relativity which contain “wormholes.” This is a Big Lie! The “solutions” cited are NOT actually valid! The first type falsely postulated, the “Schwarzchild wormhole,” which they also falsely designate with the label “Einstein-Rosen bridges” (!?), depends on a Black Hole, “which has no charge and no angular momentum!” But ALL Black Holes rotate and thus have angular momentum! (See above.) The second type, the so-called “traversable wormholes,” would require the existence of “exotic (non-baryonic) matter,” which does NOT exist and which itself would violate energy conditions specified in the General Theory and would require changing space-time topology and would require regions of negative energy, which also do not actually exist in the known Universe. At best this is all mathematical imaginings of those who want to be “the next Einstein.” Einstein himself realized that his later mathematical attempts to formulate a Grand Unified Theory were simply incorrect and were not leading in the right direction. In addition, there are no “strings.” “String Theory” is a mathematical attempt to try to refute, compete with and supplant, NOT EXPLAIN, the Theory of Quantum Mechanics, the foundations of particle physics which were established during the first half of the twentieth century by Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Albert Einstein, etc.! See below for the most likely ready solution to the Grand Unified Theory.

    Recent Findings Document that the Mass of the Universe
    Increases as Matter Enters a Black Hole and the Final Singularity!
    This Finding Totally Refutes Infinite Expansion of the Universe
    And “String Theory!” The Fact That Neutrinos Have Mass Also
    Provides Further Basis For the Big Crunch!”

    The false claim that there is supposedly insufficient matter in the Universe to permit the Big Crunch to take place is entirely refuted by 2 discoveries. Perhaps even more significant than the work on neutrinos discussed below is the paper published on November 21, 2008 in Science. More than 99% of the visible mass of the Universe is made up of protons and neutrons. Recent calculations of the mass of the nucleus found that matter, which is composed of protons and neutrons, which are in turn are composed of quarks held together with gluons by the strong force, normally exists as 95% energy, according to the formula from Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity: E=mc2! This provides further confirmation for the Big Crunch. Why? The reason, not drawn as a conclusion by the authors of the paper, is that in a Black Hole and moreover in the final Black Hole, the “Singularity,” that relationship would be 100% reversed, with all matter existing in the form of mass: m=E/c2. The mass of the Universe would therefore increase according to these findings as matter enters a Black Hole as energy shifts to its mass equivalent! (Science, Vol. 322, 5905:1198-1199 and 1124-1127) Obviously this is the precise opposite of what occurs in a nuclear explosion where matter is converted entirely to energy according to the equation E=mc2. On the other hand such tidbit reports as “Excess Particles From Space may Hint at Dark Matter,” (Science, Vol. 322, 5905:1173) are only red herrings meant to titillate, to keep attention diverted away from focusing on key findings of genuine significance. There is no such thing as “dark matter.”

    The discovery that neutrinos have mass also provides a further basis for the Big Crunch. This fact was first reported on July 1, 1998 by a collaboration of 120 U.S. and Japanese physicists at the Neutrino 98 meeting in Takayama, Japan and submitted to Physical Review Letters. (By Super-Kamiokande Collaboration (Y. Fukuda et al.) Phys.Rev.Lett.81:1562-1567,1998.) Neutrinos have sufficient weight to allow the Big Crunch! The experiment measured the differences in mass of the three types of neutrinos to be 0.1 eV or greater. The group reported that the simplest interpretation of the solar and atmospheric results is that the heaviest neutrino has a mass of 0.1 eV. However, they reported that since oscillations between the 3 types of neutrinos depend only on the differences in mass it is possible that the masses of all three neutrinos are fully 1 eV or greater, but that it is the mass differences which are much smaller. (They allow for the “possibility.” How nice! They know that the majority of physicists do not simply automatically accept the interpretation which is first proffered.)

    This makes the most sense and is of course suppressed for political reasons. (See below.) If the mass of the neutrino is 1 eV that would mean that neutrinos account for more mass in the Universe than all of the protons and neutrons put together easily supplying the supposed “missing matter” necessary for the Big Crunch. As mentioned the critical mass density required for the Big Crunch to occur is 1 x 10 to the negative 29th of a gram per cubic centimeter (approximately 5 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter), according to the calculation from the General Theory of Relativity. In addition, the fact that neutrinos have mass also provides the basis for the Grand Unified Theory which links the gravitational force described in the General Theory of Relativity with the strong and the weak forces and electromagnetism described in the Theory of Quantum Mechanics. Einstein struggled and failed to formulate this theory, but it has already been shown that at high enough energies electromagnetism and the weak force are the same force known as the electroweak force. It is theorized that if energies are increased even further and neutrinos acquire mass, which has now been fully documented, all the known forces will reduce to the same force thus providing the basis for the Grand Unified Theory. This high energy level existed only during the very early expansion of the Universe known as the Planck Epoch, which existed up to 10 to the negative 43rd seconds after the Big Bang, where the four fundamental forces — electromagnetism, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force and gravitation — all had the same strength. After that point the energy level decreased and gravity separated from the other 3 fundamental forces and with the condensation of matter into the elementary particles (quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons) formed the so-called Standard Model of today’s Universe. These facts, while available, are de-emphasized by the capitalist dictatorship propaganda machine with the false claim that “no one–not even Einstein–has been able formulate the Grand Unified Theory,” in order to try to open the door to fraudulent “string theory.” The 1998 report that neutrinos have mass was blipped in the media and then neutrino research was de-funded worldwide and thereafter suppressed for a period of time. Wonder why?? It is time to employ some inductive reasoning, which is in fact scientific reasoning. (Note: in order to understand the relationship of the 4 primary forces which exist in the universe: the typical field strength of the strong nuclear force is 100 times the strength of the electromagnetic force, approximately 10 x13 times as great as that of the weak nuclear force, and about 10 x38 times that of gravitation.)

    The Big Crunch will arrive on schedule and another Universe will begin! Einstein once said that a theory of the Universe should be both simple and elegant. Hawking sounds like a total jerk when he states that the Big Crunch is “too neat” and he prefers the “Big Rip.” Whaaa? See below. Einstein would definitely be rolling over in his grave if he were made aware of today’s totally contrived “science” especially the attempt by these fakers to re-introduce his fudge factor, the so-called “cosmological constant,” which Einstein invented/fabricated to allow for a static solution to his equations and a static Universe, which he was later forced to admit was false after the discovery of the Redshift by Edwin Hubble, which occurs when light or any type of electromagnetic radiation from distant galaxies shifts toward longer wavelengths, the less energetic part of the spectrum, due to the Doppler effect, thus indicating that those galaxies are moving away from our galaxy, the Milky Way (and vice versa) and that the Universe is (still) expanding, while it is also simultaneously contracting on another level as explained. The Redshift in light from receding galaxies is proportional to their distance from Earth. That is Hubble’s Law.

    The false assumption of a static Universe had prevented Einstein from predicting that the Universe was expanding. Einstein admitted that the “cosmological constant” was his “biggest blunder.” In December 1930 Einstein went to Cal Tech on a visiting professorship where he worked with Edwin Hubble and reportedly also apologized for his error. In 1998 the U.S. so-called “intelligence community,” directed their fleet of fake “cosmologists” and some opportunist and duped astrophysicists to try to pass off Einstein’s fraudulent cosmological constant as the entirely fictitious and admittedly totally unexplained so-called “dark energy,” (!) AKA “quintessence, ” which is supposedly responsible for a claimed “speeding up of the rate of expansion of the Universe,” which is NOT in fact actually occurring. This rubbish, as mentioned, has even been forced into advanced textbooks in astrophysics as supposed good coin. The reason for these wholesale falsifications of astrophysics is due to the capitalists’ desperation to establish a false basis to claim that the Universe supposedly had a single creation and that it will expand infinitely rather than collapse once again in the Big Crunch completing another cycle in an infinite number. The U.S. governments’ fictitious position is deliberately designed to try to allow for the existence of a “god” as “the creator.”

    The reason that the capitalists have formed an alliance with religion is that the capitalists depend on religion, belief in god and the supernatural as important weapons of deception directed against the masses! This also helps explain the appearance of fraudulent so-called “string theory” which postulates multiple Universes, eleven dimensions, rather than the 4 dimensions which actually do measurably exist. Stephen Hawking the ego-tripping, media-hyped “cosmologist” is once again postulating supposed “wormholes from one Universe to another” as well as supposed “wormholes” from one end of our Universe to the other to permit time travel “faster than the speed of light” (both of which are completely refuted by Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle). While Hawking temporarily retreated on the issue of time travel on being so reminded before recently re-embracing what he fully knows to be total nonsense, Heisenberg and other obstacles and impossible paradoxes preventing time travel are also brazenly ignored by others who are professional police-agent propagandists fully committed to such Big Lies of confusion such as the New York Times’ despicable Dennis Overbye and Nicholas Wade (Oy!), Brian Greene and the WBAI/CUNY huckster Michio Kaku, who claims to be an expert on everything, allowing him to cover up inter alia the documented fact that AIDS is Biowarfare by the U.S. Government Against Blacks an

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  45. 45. sandeepbitmba 2:01 am 07/23/2010

    I agree with all of u. But, can we really say that aliens are like us.Maybe their physics and biology is vastly different than us. we live in a 2d world and we have some access to 3d concept.Lets just say that they have relatively higher dimension understanding(4,5,6………9000), than that would make them do kinds of things we cannot think of . Maybe they are in earth and mars or other planets of our system from a long time, and just observing and laughing at us ..and waiting for the right time to reveal themselves…( Is that required???)..and take it over from us in a flash..maybe they want us to exist for their own benefits…..till there are…we earthians have still dont know perfectly about our own earth..forget other ecosystems and their inhabitants.

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  46. 46. victor.chakraborty 6:55 am 07/23/2010

    I think aliens do exist and their technology is n-dimensional.As proposed by Einstein ,"Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be transformed from one form to the other"..the same goes for matter.Possibly their technology is so advanced that our existing technology radars(forget antennas and satellites) will fail to catch their signals.But they are capable of transforming their n-D matter into ?….,k-D,(k-1)D,…., 3-D(UFO-2),2-D(UFO-1),1-D forms. And because of which they are closely watching us.They are in the mode of conducting an experiment on earth,it’s natural habitat,resources(calculation in progress),technology(strengths+weaknesses) before moving into any final inference/conclusion.So,better wait for the final day to come.HAPPY "INDEPENDENCE DAY(Hollywood movie)" Earthians.

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  47. 47. Whyitisthisway223 8:52 pm 07/23/2010

    I think in alien society price is non exsistant. They all perform basic and nessesary tasks in order to forfill the objective. Here on earth no body will work at a space program if they can’t buy cool stuff with the cash they earn. In a alien society it could be obtaining extra food so everyone can eat or some extra trees so they could build more homes for their race that is what would act as the fianacial gains. The only reason we don’t perform like 50 space missions a year is because we wouldn’t have enough money to make sure everyone gets their share of cool stuff.(CasH)

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  48. 48. Sadiebee 9:23 am 08/5/2010

    "Resource competition rules all life forms, etc." — that’s your perspective…. certainly resource competition comes into play to one extent or another in all species I suppose… but does it rule? Could most species survive if cooperation with others of same and sometimes different species play a part as well? Certainly working together is what has helped humans survive and certainly competition for resources is largely responsible for what could be of our possible demise (or perhaps some serious downsizing)….

    I would think any alien race that learned how to travel faster than the speed of light has been around a long time perhaps… You’d think that if they’d learned not to bring their own extinction about through selfish forceful means, they might not be of that nature-? Just a thought. I’m sure if there are aliens with the ability to visit our planet that it could go either way… depends on which parallel universe you’re living in I guess….!

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  49. 49. Aristocat 4:18 am 08/12/2010

    I think we humans. are the specie who is more likely to develope the technology to travel to outer space to colonize other worlds and ravage their planets. It’s a human thing to describe other imaginary or possible beings as the darkest part of our humanity that we choose not to see. The way I see the humans of the future is exactly like that frivolous race in the movie the Chronicles of Riddick that were cold, sophisticated with no feelings and full of ego and hunger for power with their so hardwired purpose "colonize and destroy" anything that reminds us of our innocent beginings in a jungle of Africa.

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  50. 50. jake22 5:57 pm 08/12/2010

    "Than" Stephen Hawking. Maybe you need to have an adventure with a grammar text. Really.

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  51. 51. xiaochen 1:03 am 03/26/2012

    Regardless of whether or not you actually anticipate to LeBron nine Nike Basketball anyway during a threatening manner can have new shoes waves pushed to the front people," Chinese color"," cannon", following the black color and lightning appeared on the shelves. in comparison to the previous 2 multicolor boots this black a lot of appealing, though strange color has become the most recent sales shoes selling however still encompasses a heap of individuals loyal plain black shoes.

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