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Posts Tagged "animals"

The Artful Amoeba

Glass Anchors Strengthen Sponges and Enlighten Engineers

glass_sponge_spicule_xsection_Monn_et_al_2015_200

It must be the Year of the Sponge here at The Artful Amoeba, because I can’t seem to write enough posts about sponges and their amazing micro-scale architecture. Below is the Sponge of the Day, and it’s one I’ve discussed here before:  Euplectella aspergillum, also called Venus’s flower basket. “Euplectella aspergillum” by NOAA/Monterey Bay Aquarium [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

Ahoy! Thar Be a New Seadragon in the Briny Deep

Leafy_Seadragon

As fabulous, fantastical gems of evolution go, seadragons are hard to beat. The weedy seadgragon: “Weedy seadragon-Phyllopteryx taeniolatus” by Sylke Rohrlach – http://www.flickr.com/photos/87895263@N06/11259275943/sizes/l/in/photostream/. Licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 via Wikimedia Commons. The leafy seadragon, one of my favorite animals of all time: “Leafy Seadragon” by Joseph C Boone – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

Tiny Cell Grows Giant Death Spike and Lives to Grow Another

sponge_spicule_cell_fig1f_Imsiecke_et_al_1995_200

Let’s say you’re a small cell engaged in heavy manufacturing. Like most animal cells, you are coated only in a thin membrane made a double layer of fluid fat-like molecules. The thing you make is a giant, pointy glass rod twice your size. Would you expect to survive this process? Well, if you’re a cell [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

Lowly Sponges Conceal Astounding Architecture

lithistid_skeletons_fig3bdfh_Schuster_et_al_2015_200

To look at a rock sponge, which usually has all the visual appeal of a potato, you would never guess that inside lies the Notre Dame of animal skeletons. But so it is. Here are a few: The rock sponges (named for their notable lack of squish) build their skeletons out of tiny bits of [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

Deepest Fish Features Angel Wings, Tentacles and Amazing Ability to Perform Under Pressure

snailfish_youtube_200

There comes a depth at which even fish struggle to survive the titanic pressure. But that depth is only found at the few places on Earth that lie below 27,600 feet of water, where the weight of the water warps piscine proteins and crushes cells. Such a place is the Mariana Trench, which plunges to [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

Wonderful Things: The Giant Transparent Ribbons of Eel Larvae

ribbon_eel_larva_miller_et_al_2013

Author’s note: This is the latest post in the Wonderful Things series. You can read more about this series here. It is startling how different the larvae of fish can be from the adults that produced them, as I wrote in a blog post a few months ago. But even I was shocked by the [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

Wonderful Things: The Starry Night Beneath the Caribbean Sea

ostracod_cypridinid_elliot_lowndes_200

One of the most astounding events of my life was immediately preceded by one of the scariest: I turned out my dive light in the ocean at night.

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The Artful Amoeba

Cosmic Karma: Mosquitoes Have Flying, Blood-Sucking Parasites of Their Own

midge_parasitic_mosquito

In 1922, a scientist named F.W. Edwards published a paper describing a remarkable thing: a flying, biting midge collected from the Malay Peninsula in southeast Asia that he named Culicoides anophelis. What made the midge was remarkable was the thing it bit: mosquitoes.

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The Artful Amoeba

Lone Survivor? Weird New Animal May Be Long Sought Living Ediacaran

dendrogramma_just_et_al_plos_one_200

It’s not every day a new animal is discovered that could shake up the roots of animal taxonomy and simultaneously form its own new phylum, the top classification in the Animal Kingdom, but today is such a day. The new animals – Dendrogramma enigmatica and Dengrogramma discoides – are not yet certain to represent a [...]

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The Artful Amoeba

Giant, Ancient Chirping Pill-Millipedes of Madagascar: Irresistible

pill-millipede_Sphaeromimus_andrahomana_Wesener_et_al_2014_200

On the island of Madagascar lives a group of millipedes that can roll into balls as large as a small orange. Although that may seem alarming, they have no poison glands. They can, however, activate your cuteness sensors.

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Dog Spies

Anthrozoology: Not a Study of Ants

Anthrozoology_Dog Spies_Square

Never seen the word “Anthrozoology” before? That’s okay. If you looked at the word and focused on the “ant” part, then try again. Instead, “Anthro” and “Zoology” are the interesting bits, and broadly speaking anthrozoology is the study of human-animal interactions and relationships. This is how it’s pronounced, along with a brief primer: As the [...]

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Dog Spies

Dogs in Pantyhose

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Until recently, the only association I made between dogs and pantyhose would have involved an unfortunate trip to the vet. Of the inanimate objects pulled from pets’ gastrointestinal tracts — from drywall and hearing aids to corn cobs and toy cars — pantyhose, and their cousins, socks and underwear, top the list. But last week, [...]

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Expeditions

Along the Tiger’s Trail: Genetic Studies Aid Conservation

A Bengal tiger. (Photo: Prasenjeet Yadav)

Editor’s Note: “Along the Tiger’s Trail” is a  series about the efforts to monitor tigers and their prey in the Malenad landscape in southwestern India that harbors one of the world’s largest population of wild tigers. The series tracks on-going annual activities of the world’s longest running research project on tiger and their prey, implemented [...]

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Expeditions

The Richest Reef: Life in Layers

A porcelain crab (Neopetrolisthes maculate) right at home at the edge of an anemone. (Photo by Will Love)

Editor’s Note: “The Richest Reef” follows members of a scientific dive team as they attempt to pinpoint the center of the most biologically diverse marine ecosystem in the world. Long considered our planet’s most species-rich piece of ocean real estate, the Western Pacific’s “Coral Triangle” is a continent-sized patchwork of habitats, populations, and communities. Expedition [...]

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Expeditions

The Richest Reef: No Such Thing as Packing Light

A traditional Filipino fishing boat, or “banca,” packed with gear during the 2014 expedition. (Photo by Luiz Rocha)

Editor’s Note: “The Richest Reef” follows members of a scientific dive team as they attempt to pinpoint the center of the most biologically diverse marine ecosystem in the world. Long considered our planet’s most species-rich piece of ocean real estate, the Western Pacific’s “Coral Triangle” is a continent-sized patchwork of habitats, populations, and communities. Expedition [...]

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Expeditions

The Richest Reef: Exploring the Most Diverse Marine Ecosystem on Earth

An expectation-setting teaser from the expedition’s first team of divers. (Photo by Rich Mooi)

Editor’s Note: “The Richest Reef” follows members of a scientific dive team as they attempt to pinpoint the center of the most biologically diverse marine ecosystem in the world. Long considered our planet’s most species-rich piece of ocean real estate, the Western Pacific’s “Coral Triangle” is a continent-sized patchwork of habitats, populations, and communities. Expedition [...]

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Expeditions

Along the Tiger’s Trail: Counting the Prey

A herd of chital sighted during transect survey in Malenadu. (Photo: Varun Goswami)

Thimmayya, a Jenu Kuruba tribesman who lives in the Nagarahole Tiger Reserve is leading the way. Following him is Killivalavan Rayar, a senior research associate working with WCS India Program. They tread along a forested trail, silent and observant. Suddenly, to the left, they hear a crack made by the snapping of a branch. The [...]

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Expeditions

Along the Tiger’s Trail: Where Are the Cats Found and Why?

Grid array overlaid across Malenad landscape for tiger occupancy surveys (left). Traditional, presence-only surveys (center) underestimated tiger occupancy by 45% when compared to occupancy modeling (right), which estimated that tigers occupied 66% of the landscape.

A team of four WCS India Program field members are sweating it out in the rugged hilly terrain of Malenad. Walking neither too fast, nor too slow, they follow a trail, diligently observing and recording signs of tigers and other wildlife along the way. The solitary bark of an alarmed deer nearby instinctively makes them [...]

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Expeditions

Along the Tiger’s Trail: What’s in Scat?

Tiger scat on the forest floor. (Courtesy of WCS India)

Editor’s Note: “Along the Tiger’s Trail” is a  series about the efforts to monitor tigers and their prey in the Malenad landscape in southwestern India that harbors one of the world’s largest population of wild tigers. The series tracks on-going annual activities of the world’s longest running research project on tiger and their prey, implemented [...]

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Expeditions

Along the Tiger’s Trail: It’s All in the Stripes

A 3D model wireframe fit onto a tiger with ExtractCompare sof​tware.

Editor’s Note: “Along the Tiger’s Trail” is a  series about the efforts to monitor tigers and their prey in the Malenad landscape in southwestern India that harbors one of the world’s largest population of wild tigers. The series tracks on-going annual activities of the world’s longest running research project on tiger and their prey, implemented [...]

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Expeditions

Along the Tiger’s Trail: Trapping Season Begins

A photograph from a camera-trap. (Courtesy of K. Ullas Karanth/WCS)

Editor’s Note: “Along the Tiger’s Trail” is a  series about the efforts to monitor tigers and their prey in the Malenad landscape in southwestern India that harbors one of the world’s largest population of wild tigers. The series tracks on-going annual activities of the world’s longest running research project on tiger and their prey, implemented [...]

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Expeditions

Neutrinos on Ice: Waiting to Fly

ANITA rolling out to the launchpad. (Katie Mulrey)

It’s another beautiful day in Antarctica, and the time has come to launch ANITA! Finding the right date is tricky. Many factors have to fall into place. In order to detect neutrinos and cosmic rays, we want to fly over the Eastern ice sheet in Antarctica. We detect these particles via their radio emission. The [...]

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Extinction Countdown

Updates from the Brink: A Plan for Bats, Oil-Spill Penguins and Branson’s Lemurs

The news about endangered species doesn’t slow down. Here, we update some Extinction Countdown stories covered in recent weeks: A plan to save bats The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service released a national plan to combat the bat-killing white-nose syndrome (WNS) on May 17. As we have reported here many times before, the fungus that [...]

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Extinction Countdown

Nearly extinct giraffe subspecies enjoys conservation success

west African giraffe

The rarest of the nine giraffe subspecies, the West African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis peralta), almost didn’t make it to the 21st century. After years of being poached and losing habitat to development, only 50 of these animals were left in Niger in 1996, and the subspecies’s future seemed bleak. But today, just 13 years later, [...]

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Extinction Countdown

Search for world’s rarest lemur pays off

greater bamboo lemur

Heading into the jungles of Madagascar in search of the world’s rarest lemur—the greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus)—was a gamble that paid off, said Damian Aspinall of The Aspinall Foundation. An expedition of scientists from the foundation, Conservation International (CI), Association Mitsinjo, and GERP (Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar) searched [...]

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Extinction Countdown

How much is a wolf worth in Idaho? $11.75

wolf howling at moon

Gray wolves have a price tag on their heads in Idaho, and it’s a bargain-basement price at that. Starting Monday, Idaho residents can get wolf-hunting permits for just $11.75 (after purchasing a state hunting license for $12.75, of course). Nonresidents have to pay a bit more: $154.75 for a hunting license, plus $186 for a [...]

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Guest Blog

What about Earth’s Microbiome?

Biological soil crust in Arches National Park, Utah. Biological soil crusts are composed of oxygen-producing cyanobacteria, green algae, brown algae, fungi, lichens and/or mosses. (Photo: Neal Herbert/National Park Service/Flickr)

The latest temperature readings from Antarctica are giving the world pause, along with the finding that 70 percent of the western Antarctic ice shelf has melted. As Earth day approaches, discussions around climate change tend to focus on rising temperatures and sea levels, stronger storms and disruption of agriculture. But one key player has been [...]

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Guest Blog

Darwin: the Movie

Clockwise from top left: Young Charles Darwin (George Richmond, 1840); Daniel Radcliffe (Joella Marano/Flickr); Henry Cavill (David Shankbone/Wikimedia); Andrew Garfield (Paulae/Wikimedia)

It’s true, Mr. and Ms. Hollywood Producer, Nash, Hawking, Turing were great and all, and their stories brought big bucks and a few Oscars rolling your way, but come on! When it comes to Hollywood science biopics, what about The Man? I mean his discoveries changed how we see our place in nature, who we [...]

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Guest Blog

The Quest for Better Broccoli Starts with More Science

Image: Puamelia/Flickr

Everyone knows that broccoli is good for you. What was not known—until researchers examined how broccoli was prepared for distribution—is that frozen broccoli lacked the cancer-fighting nutrients that the fresh vegetable provided. With a grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI), however, scientists at the University of Illinois discovered [...]

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Guest Blog

Birdwatchers, Hunters Train Their Scopes on Conservation

A group of men stand birdwatching. (Ryan Hagerty/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Wikimedia)

Sparked by Richard Louv’s book on Nature-Deficit Disorder, many organizations, agencies, teachers and the White House have made the push to get people outside for the benefit of their mental and physical health. Now there is another reason: to benefit environmental health. In a new study my colleagues and I show that outdoor recreationists—in this [...]

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Guest Blog

Virtual Dissection Method Could Reinvigorate Zoology

A 3D rendering of an earthworm made from a micro-computed tomography imagery dataset. This specimen was virtually dissected using the ‘wedge dissect’ tool in the open-source visualization software Drishti.

Last summer, researchers demonstrated that non-invasive imaging combined with a staining technique enables the fast comparison and study of earthworm species and other animals in unprecedented detail. In the first comparative morphology study of its kind, the research team produced three-dimensional images of individual muscle fibers and single blood cells in earthworms. The technique allowed [...]

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Guest Blog

Let’s Expand Terrestrial Parks into the Ocean

A southern elephant seal colony on Argentina’s Patagonia coast. Argentina has for several years been expanding a number of its coastal protected parks for penguins, sea lions and elephant seals to the limits of its territorial sea. (Credit: Cristián Samper/WCS)

“A land ethic,” the great naturalist writer Aldo Leopold observed toward the end of his famous Sand County Almanac, “reflects the existence of an ecological conscience, and this in turn reflects a conviction of individual responsibility for the health of land.” This philosophy of care for the earth’s ecosystems and species provides one of the [...]

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Guest Blog

Good Dads and Not-So-Good Dads in the Animal Kingdom

Happy father’s day! First off, to every father out there (biological or not), this is the time where we stand up and say thank you. We may not always show it, but we love you and appreciate everything you have done for us thus far. Today is also the day where we celebrate the uniqueness [...]

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Guest Blog

When Cells Discovered Architecture

In early 1997, while still a freshman in college pondering whether to study biology or archaeology, I opened up my copy of Discover Magazine to find an article that startled and captivated me. "When Life Was Odd", read the headline, and if that didn’t sell me, the photos did. They were of Ediacarans, creatures named [...]

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Guest Blog

Bambi or Bessie: Are wild animals happier?

We, as emotional beings, place a high value on happiness and joy. Happiness is more than a feeling to us – it’s something we require and strive for. We’re so fixated on happiness that we define the pursuit of it as a right. We seek happiness not only for ourselves and our loved ones, but [...]

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Guest Blog

Ugly animals need love, too

February is the month of love, and with Valentine’s Day behind us, it is only natural to feel a certain affection for those that were sadly alone on this year’s February the 14th. That is why this post is devoted to the outcasts on the animal kingdom, the species that sadly do not get as [...]

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MIND Guest Blog

Using Light to Monitor and Activate Specific Brain Cells

Artist's rendering of a spatial light modulator fires precise beams of laser light at neurons targeted by researchers, triggering those neurons to fire. (Courtesy of Hausser Lab/UCL)

The past several years have brought two parallel revolutions in neuroscience. Researchers have begun using genetically encoded sensors to monitor the behavior of individual neurons, and they’ve been using brief pulses of light to trigger certain types of neurons to activate. These two techniques are known collectively as optogenetics—the science of using light to read [...]

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MIND Guest Blog

Self-Controlled Crows Ace the Marshmallow Test

Are four treats better than two? Not if you’re a crow picking a favorite snack. Crows and ravens hold off on gobbling a tidbit when they can see a better one coming after a short wait. But they’ll only act with restraint if the future treat is something they like more than what they already [...]

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MIND Guest Blog

Plenty of Pheromones in the Sea

As we sat in my car outside a silent movie theater in Los Angeles, my friend anxiously opened a plastic bag containing a white T-shirt she’d slept in for the past three nights. “Does it smell like me?” she asked nervously, gesturing the open end toward my face. I stuck my nose into the bag [...]

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Observations

The Race to Catalogue Living Species before They Go Extinct

soft-coral

The U.S. has spent several billion dollars looking for life on other planets. Shouldn’t we spend at least that much finding and identifying life on Earth? That is the argument behind a taxonomy analysis by a trio of scientists in Science, published on January 25. They argue just $500 million to $1 billion a year [...]

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Observations

Animal Tracks: Music about Unusual Creatures Features Some Unusual Instruments [Video]

dugong, underwater photo

Michael Hearst seems to enjoy making music with a purpose. About five years ago the Brooklyn, N.Y., musician made headlines with a pretty self-explanatory record called Songs for Ice Cream Trucks. Since then, he and his band One Ring Zero have released an album-long ode to the planets (including Pluto), as well as a record [...]

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Observations

5-Armed Brittle Stars Always Face Front [Video]

brittle star

How would you walk if you had five arms and no brains? If you’re a brittle star, the answer turns out to be quite well (for an echinoderm)—although it’s a little complicated. The blunt-spined brittle star (Ophiocoma echinata) looks like a claymation creature from an alien horror movie as it moves its disk-like body along [...]

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Observations

Animals Exposed to Virtual Reality Hold an Emergency Meeting [Video]

On the evening of Wednesday, March 21, a mouse scurried into a storm drain near the southeast corner of Central Park in New York City. If anyone noticed the mouse at all, whatever shallow impression the sight of a Manhattan rodent made on their minds likely vanished within seconds, rinsed away by a new wave [...]

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Observations

3-D Imaging of Microfossils Muddies Case for Early Animal Embryos [Video]

The proverbial primordial soup from which our earliest, multi-cellular ancestors emerged was presumably seething with many much simpler, single-celled organisms. Finding the first indications of evolution into more advanced, embryonic development has proved difficult, however, both because of the organisms’ small size and soft structures. A famous collection of minute 570-million-year-old fossils, from the Doushantuo [...]

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Observations

Stress tests devised to reliably reveal personality in birds

greenfinch from animal personality test of stress and behavior

Most dog and cat owners will happily describe their pet’s disposition down to the smallest, human-like detail. But how much of that is over-reaching anthropomorphizing and how much is an individual animal’s actual "personality" shining through? Researchers in the U.K. devised a series of tests to see how individual animals respond—both behaviorally and biologically—to different [...]

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Observations

Mongoose mentors teach traditions through imitation

In Australia, some dolphins suit up for dinner. Before poking through seafloor mud for a delectable crustacean or cephalopod, the dolphins protect their sensitive snouts with marine sponges. What’s more, dolphins teach each other this behavior. It’s a kind of cultural learning observed in other highly intelligent animals, such as chimpanzees, who teach one another [...]

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Observations

Clever critters: Bonobos that share, brainy bugs and social dogs

NEW YORK—When it comes to brain power, we humans like to think we’re the animal kingdom’s undisputed champions. But in the past few decades we’ve had to make a lot of room on our mantle place for shared trophies. Problem-solving? Sorry, but crows and octopuses do that too. Tool use? Primates, birds and even fish [...]

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SA Visual

Behind the Scenes at Scientific American MIND‘s May/June Cover Shoot!

Aaron Goodman photographs Ten.

The May/June cover is a first for Scientific American MIND in that it features our first non-human cover boy – a very handsome 5 year old Border Collie named Ten! Photographer Aaron Goodman photographed him in his Manhattan studio in February. Ten, who is the first GCH OTCH (Grand Champion and Obedience Trial Champion) Border Collie in [...]

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Tetrapod Zoology

These skulls are for talking about

Bored? Looking for things to do? No, me neither. But have some fun and look at these skulls — then identify them (taking care to note your identifications in the comments below). And then… … see if you can go that extra bit further and say something especially interesting*, since there’s lots of neat stuff going [...]

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Tetrapod Zoology

Jagged-toothed mystery monster; needs identifying

It’s Friday and I’m about to go away on fieldwork for a while, so let’s have some fun (even though substantial media interest in the new Isle of Wight azhdarchoid pterosaur Vectidraco continues unabated). Why not knock yourself out and have a go at identifying this bizarre skeletal tetrapod, surely one of the weirdest things [...]

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Tetrapod Zoology

Tet Zoo ver 3, (part of) the story so far

Tet Zoo ver 3 – the Sci Am incarnation of this august and influential institution – has now been going for about 10 months, and a moderately respectable 78 articles have appeared on the blog so far (excluding this one). The vast majority have been lengthy, referenced, heavily illustrated articles – no brief, picture-of-the-day-style contributions [...]

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The Urban Scientist

Wordless Wednesday: Heavy Weight

The Urban Scientist

Hip Hop Evolution Files: Anaconda Educational Version

Hip Hop Science DNLee

I love a great HipHopEd Science Explainer. This one is timely, entertaining, creative, and quite accurate. It’s a satire of Nicki Minaj’s Anaconda. The song (lyrics) and video (images) are not safe for work (or minors). But dang, I enjoy the original song and this “remix” by College Humor. Anaconda – The Educational Version (Nicki [...]

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The Urban Scientist

Urban Science Adventure: Snake spotting

Garter Snake photo by DNLee

Originally posted at Urban Science Adventures! © on November 2, 2010 as Snakes up close. I’ve got to make a confession. I really don’t give reptile (or amphibians) their just due. I’m a mammalogist, true and through. But I’m also an opportunist, which is why I feature so many plants, flowers, and trees in my [...]

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The Urban Scientist

Urban Science Adventure: Be on the look out for squirrels and dreys

from-the-archives

This post was originally published at Urban Science Adventures! © on January 23, 2009 as Urban Wildlife Watch: Squirrels and Dreys. ************************* Squirrels are rodents, so that means they are cousins to chipmunks, mice, rats, voles, and beavers. They are members of the Sciuridae family, which means ‘bushy tail’ and is a perfect way to [...]

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The Urban Scientist

Urban Science Adventure: Eye Spy Dragonflies!

DNLee holding dragon fly

Have you seen a large beautiful flying insect hovering nearby? I mean glorious and sparkly greens and golds or black and blues, maybe with a little touch of yellow or violet. If you live by water, or know where a nice creek, pond, or lake is, you just may see dragonflies!  Dragonflies are beautiful creatures [...]

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The Urban Scientist

Wordless Wednesday: Research Snapshots 8 – taking measurements

Young female pouched rat getting her anogenital distance measured

Research snaphots from what’s active on my desk right now. Yes, this is what has my attention these days – anogenital distances, AGD. Simple basic physical measures of anatomy of AGD can tell scientists a lot of important information about a species. In most mammaliam species AGD is a dimorphic – meaning different in size [...]

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The Urban Scientist

Urban Science Adventure: Catching and Watching Fireflies

firefly lightening bug

What do you see when you go into your backyard in the evening time?  Most people don’t even think about being outside at that time until the warm rays of summer touch their skins.  Summer nights mean warm nights where you can be outside until dusk and beyond and see the wonders that Mother Nature [...]

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The Urban Scientist

Wordless Wednesday: Making Panyabuuku Plans

Cricetomys ansorgei African Giant pouched rat in a pot

I’m in planning mode for my return trip to Tanzania to study African Giant Pouched Rats, Cricetomys ansorgei This is what I spend a good portion of my time doing, live-trapping and capturing pouched rats, called panyabuuku, in the wild. This is what I actually have in store for me – literally! A large pile [...]

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The Urban Scientist

Wordless Wednesday: I study the most adorable species in the world – Pouched Rats

African Giant Pouched Rat Cricetomys ansorgei in trap looking adorable and eating banana 2

We can’t all study the most adorable, photogenic rat ever known, so I generously share all of the cuteness with you. Pouched Rats – the most adorable little beasties!

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The Urban Scientist

Urban Science Adventure: 100+ things to do outside

Me holding a Fowler's toad

It’s summer. The kids are out of school. You want to keep them engaged and active. Most parents also want to keep them on track academically, but not necessarily with a strong hand approach to learning. I get it. Cultivating some old-fashioned out of doors play and reflection time is just what this doctor recommends. [...]

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Voices

Empowering Native Alaskans to Become Stewards of Their Land

– Friendly walks the banks of Karluk Lake on Kodiak Island with USFWS researchers, armed with a 12-gauge shotgun. When salmon are plentiful, 10-foot-tall, 1,500-pound brown bears feed along the banks of rivers and streams on the island, consuming up to 90 pounds of food each day.

The 408 residents of Tuntutuliak Alaska, live at the mouth of the Kuskokwim River, 450 miles west of Anchorage over a mountain range and across a seemingly endless and treeless rolling tundra plain. The people of Tuntutuliak speak Yupik. The land is pure wilderness. There is no road. The closest road is in Anchorage. Moose, [...]

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