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Posts Tagged "Hallmarks of Cancer"

Guest Blog

The Hallmarks of Cancer 9: Reprogramming Energy Metabolism

Cancer cells consume more glucose than normal cells. This is exploited when imaging cancer. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) combined with Computer Tomography (PET/CT) is used to detect the absorption of the glucose analogue fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by tumours. In this image, besides the normal accumulation of the FDG molecule in the heart, bladder, kidneys, and brain, liver metastases of a colorectal tumor are visible in the abdominal region. (Image credit: Jens Maus, Wikimedia Commons)

The Hallmarks of Cancer are ten underlying principles shared by all cancers. You can read the first eight Hallmarks of Cancer articles here. The ninth Hallmark of Cancer is defined as “Reprogramming Energy Metabolism”. Uncontrolled growth defines cancer. Growth requires a cancer’s cells to replicate all of their cellular components; their DNA, RNA, proteins and [...]

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Guest Blog

Hallmarks of Cancer 8: Tumor-Promoting Inflammation

Tumors and their TAMs. Tumors secrete signalling molecules known as chemokines to attract circulating monocytes, a type of white blood cell. Once in the tumor, the monocytes differentiate into Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs). Oxygen-starved (hypoxic) areas of the tumor secrete VEGF, which attracts these TAMs. TAMs can also secrete VEGF, which in turn attract more TAMs to the tumor. / Image by Buddhini Samarasinghe.

The Hallmarks of Cancer are ten underlying principles shared by all cancers. You can read the first seven Hallmarks of Cancer articles here. The eighth Hallmark of Cancer is defined as “tumor-promoting inflammation.” We consider the immune system as our friend; it protects us by fighting infections while keeping us healthy. But there is a [...]

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Guest Blog

Hallmarks of Cancer 7: Genome Instability and Mutation

BRCA1 structure

All cancers share ten underlying principles, also known as the Hallmarks of Cancer. You can read about the first six here. The seventh is defined as genome instability and mutation. Cancer Cells Evolve Not all cancer cells are equal. They vary, they compete, and the fittest survive to pass on their genes to daughter cells, [...]

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Guest Blog

Hallmarks of Cancer 6: Tissue Invasion and Metastasis

The Hallmarks of Cancer are 10 underlying principles shared by all cancers. You can read the first five Hallmarks of Cancer articles here. The Sixth Hallmark of Cancer is defined as “Tissue Invasion and Metastasis.” A growing tumor will eventually spawn pioneer cells; these move out of the original clump of mutant cells to invade [...]

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Guest Blog

Hallmarks of Cancer 5: Sustained Angiogenesis

Before and After Image depicting Angiogenesis

The Hallmarks of Cancer focus on 10 underlying principles shared by all cancers. You can read the first four Hallmarks of Cancer articles here. The Fifth Hallmark of Cancer is defined as “Sustained Angiogenesis.” In a developing embryo or a healing wound, communities of cells organize themselves into tissues, undertaking specialized tasks beyond the ability [...]

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Guest Blog

Hallmarks of Cancer 4: Limitless Replicative Potential

Human chromosomes, stained blue, with marker for telomere region in red. Image credit: Asako J. Nakamura (Wikimedia Commons).

The Hallmarks of Cancer are ten underlying principles shared by all cancers. The previous Hallmark of Cancer articles can be found here. The Fourth Hallmark of Cancer is defined as “Limitless Replicative Potential”. The first three Hallmarks of Cancer explain how independence from growth signals, insensitivity to antigrowth signals and resistance to apoptosis lead to [...]

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Guest Blog

Hallmarks of Cancer 3: Evading Apoptosis

mouse pawA

The Hallmarks of Cancer are ten underlying principles shared by all cancers. The first and second Hallmark of Cancer articles can be found here and here. The Third Hallmark of Cancer is defined as “Evading Apoptosis”. Apoptosis is the opposite of cell growth; it is cell death. To divide and grow uncontrollably, a cancer cell [...]

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Guest Blog

Hallmarks of Cancer 2: Insensitivity to Antigrowth Signals

The Cell Cycle, showing G1, S, G2 and M stages. Cell growth occurs during G1 and G2, while DNA is synthesized in S stage. Cell division occurs during M stage (mitosis). G0 indicates quiescent stage where the cell exits the cell cycle but can re-enter if the signals from the environment are appropriate. Red dots indicate important Cell Cycle Checkpoints G1/S and G2/M. Image credit: Buddhini Samarasinghe

The Hallmarks of Cancer are ten underlying principles shared by all cancers. You can read the first Hallmark of Cancer article here. The Second Hallmark of Cancer is defined as “Insensitivity to Antigrowth Signals”. Before I explain how failure to respond to antigrowth signals is closely involved in the development of cancer, it is useful [...]

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Guest Blog

Hallmarks of Cancer 1: Self-Sufficiency in Growth Signals

Growth Factors fit perfectly into Growth Factor Receptor Binding Sites. Two different types of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF1 and FGF2, left) shown bound to its specific receptor (center) and separate (right). Image credit: Alexander Plotnikov.

The Hallmarks of Cancer are ten anti-cancer defense mechanisms that are hardwired into our cells, that must be breached by a cell on the path towards cancer. The First Hallmark of Cancer is defined as “Self-Sufficiency in Growth Signals”. What does this mean? Before I explain how growth signals are intimately involved in the development [...]

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Guest Blog

Introduction to the Hallmarks of Cancer

A composite from a time-lapse of a HeLa cell (cervical cancer) undergoing cell division. Cellular structures have been visualized using cyan (cell membrane) and red (DNA). Image Credit: Kuan-Chung Su, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, Wellcome Images.

In 2000, Robert Weinberg and Douglas Hanahan published a review article in the journal Cell titled “The Hallmarks of Cancer“. It was a seminal paper in every sense of the word; downloaded 20,000 times a year between 2004 and 2007, with over 15,000 citations in other research papers. In 2011, Weinberg and Hanahan updated their [...]

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