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Japan Tsunami Debris on Pagan Island: Financial Problems May Lead to a Second Environmental Mess

The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.


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Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands. Photo by David Sischo.

Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands. Photo by David Sischo.

This is a story about how a small island in the tropical pacific was proposed as a dumpsite for trash from the 2011 Japan tsunami. The story of Pagan Island involves the chemistry of Greece’s Pantheon, Jack Abramoff, sweatshops, and a bat so big it’s called a flying fox. Even on a remote uninhabited island, nothing is as simple as it seems.

Every day, about 270,000 people drive over the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. Very few of them probably realize that the piers supporting the bridge are strengthened by a byproduct of volcanic eruption. This product is called pozzolan, and it has been in use for thousands of years. Pozzolan is an additive that increases the strength and durability of cement through something called the pozzolanic reaction.

The famous cement dome of Rome’s pantheon was made with pozzolanic cement. Photo by Alexis Rudd.

The famous cement dome of Rome’s Coliseum was made with pozzolanic cement. Photo by Alexis Rudd.

If you’ve ever been to the Coliseum in Rome or the Pantheon in Greece, you’ve seen the proof of pozzolan’s durability. The pantheon’s ancient domed ceiling was made from pozzolanic cement mined from Greece. In addition to ancient icons like the Pantheon and the Coliseum, many modern structures are strengthened by volcanic pozzolan, including the Coyote Power Generating Plant in North Dakota, the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia river between Oregon and Washington, and the Los Angeles Aqueduct (famous for its Grease car race scene).

Pozzolanic cement allows us to generate power, move water, and even cross over it. But where in the world does natural pozzolan come from? In fact, although there are over 1000 volcanos that have been active in the last 10,000 years, only three have produced “high quality” pozzolan suitable for use in cement production. These three volcanoes are Santorini Volcano in Greece, Vesuvius in Italy, and Pagan Volcano in the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands. Of the three, only the Pagan Island volcano is currently active, and it has never been mined for pozzolan. In 1981, an especially large volcanic eruption spewed pozzolan over about five square miles of the island, covering some parts of it up to 100 feet.

Marianas Fruit Bat, Photo by David Sischo.

Marianas Fruit Bat, Photo by David Sischo.

Unlike at Santorini and Vesuvius, the pozzolan deposits at Pagan Island are not conveniently located to… anything, really. Pagan is extremely isolated, located 198 km (123 miles) from the Marianas Islands capital on Saipan Island and more than 1000 miles from mainland Japan. Pagan is one of the most biologically diverse islands in the Northern Marianas, and is currently uninhabited (the Chamorro residents were evacuated during the 1981 volcano eruption, and have been unable to return).

It has been relatively sheltered from development and invasive species, and is home to many animals that are rare on the populated islands. The species found on Pagan include the Marianas fruit bat, which has a three-foot wing-span and is also known as the flying fox for its dog-like face.

Another species that finds refuge on Pagan is the endemic Micronesian megapode, which is extinct on the populated islands of Tinian, Rota, Saipan and Guam.

Micronesian Megapode. Photo by Michael Lusk.

Micronesian Megapode. Photo by Michael Lusk.

Micronesian megapodes are the only birds known to incubate their eggs using the heat from volcanoes. Like many ground-nesting forest birds (including New Zealand’s Kiwi), they are especially vulnerable to invasive species and habitat loss. The threatened tree snail Partula gibba, which is similar to Hawaii’s endemic tree snails, also makes Pagan Island its home.

Pagan Coconut crab with an empty coconut. Photo by David Sischo.

Pagan Coconut crab with an empty coconut. Photo by David Sischo.

The largest arthropod in the world, the coconut crab, is common on Pagan. On more populated islands, it is rare due to habitat loss, and because it is tasty. Coconut crabs can break open coconut shells with their bare claws – something you or I would need a machete or an axe to do.

Pagan Island coral reef. Photo by David Sischo

Pagan Island coral reef. Photo by David Sischo

Beyond the shores, the coral reefs are teeming with life. Coral is easily disturbed by sedimentation and by development such as the construction of breakwaters and piers. These structures would be necessary for any sort of development on Pagan Island, whether it be mining, processing of tsunami trash, or as a base for military live fire exercises.

Just to visit Pagan Island and look at the pozzolan, you’d have to fly for two hours in a small plane over the Pacific Ocean from Saipan. Which is exactly what a team of Japanese investors, engineers, and scientists from the Kansai Oil Co. did on April 27th. Over the span of their 10-year lease, these investors are proposing to mine almost 100 million metric tons of pozzolan from Pagan. In order to do so, they will need to build facilities on the undeveloped island, including possibly “a functioning seaport, a small airstrip, or power and water services” at a cost to the company of roughly 20 million dollars.

To offset the high price of shipping, the investors are proposing to ship debris from the 2011 Japanese tsunami to Pagan for “temporary storage and recycling”. I have “temporary storage” in quotes because I find it difficult to believe that if there is not enough money now to bring empty ships to Pagan Island to collect pozzolan, there will be enough money later to bring empty ships back to collect the “stored” debris. And it’s not even as though there is no other way to obtain pozzolanic material – it is manufactured in many ways, including as a byproduct of coal and electrical plants (some methods are greener than others).

To understand why Marianas Islands residents might want to lease their land to another country as a dumping site, it is important to understand some of the history and politics of this island chain.

Since 1591, the Northern Marianas Islands have been claimed by Spain, Mexico, Germany, Japan, and the United States. During the Spanish occupation, some 90-95% of the native Chamorro people died of Spanish-introduced diseases. As if this wasn’t enough, the Spanish also forced the entire native population to move from their home islands to Guam, from which they were not allowed to return for approximately 150 years. Spain sold the Northern Marianas to Germany in 1899, but it was awarded to Japan after World War I. US forces captured most of the Northern Marianas in July of 1944, and ended the War in the Pacific by launching the atomic bomb that destroyed Hiroshima from Tinian (the second-most populated island in the Northern Marianas).

So what would motivate a small island nation to sell one of its most limited commodities – land? Until recently, the Northern Marianas benefited from the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which limited the amount of imports on goods such as textiles from outside the US. The Northern Marianas as a territory of the US had no such restrictions, but also was able to regulate its own immigration laws. Thus, they were able to bring over immigrant factory workers from China and pay them lower-than-US federal minimum wage, but also sell the garments as “made in the USA.”

The La Fiesta Mall on Saipan was abandoned in 2004, near the end of the Saipan factory closures. Photo by ontheraks.

The La Fiesta Mall on Saipan was abandoned in 2004, near the end of the Saipan factory closures. Photo by ontheraks.

Thousands of people immigrated from China and elsewhere to work in the factories in Saipan (which has 90% of the population of the Northern Marianas). During the late ‘90s, there were many allegations that the conditions in the factories were inhumane. As the expiration of the GATT drew near, the government of the Northern Marianas hired Jack Abramoff at $100,000 per month to lobby for a lower minimum wage in Saipan than in the rest of the United States. The long effort to keep minimum wage laws from applying to Saipan was lost in 2008, after Abramoff was sent to jail for fraud.

In 2005, when the GATT expired, Saipan suddenly lost its trade advantage. Between 2005 and 2009, all 35 of the garment factories closed, leaving a glut of workers.

Many of these workers are young women who now work at massage parlors. When I was in Saipan last year, the massage ladies constantly pestered my male coworker when we walked to dinner.

Saipan Massage Parlor during the daytime. At night, massage ladies stand outside and solicit customers. Photo by Adam U

Saipan Massage Parlor during the daytime. At night, massage ladies stand outside and solicit customers. Photo by Adam U

The economy of Saipan Island, which has 90% of the population for the Northern Marianas, is hurting badly. Saipan is one of the most beautiful places I have ever been to, and almost every store accepts food stamps. This poverty is why they have considered leasing their limited land to a Japanese Oil Company. Or to a private company. Or to the US Navy as a training site (Surveys of Pagan Island have been funded by the US Department of Defense because it is being considered as a live fire training area as part of the Guam buildup, much like Ka`ula Rock in Hawai`i and San Celemente Island in California).

Mt. Pagan smokes just before its 2009 eruption. Photo by David Sischo.

Mt. Pagan smokes just before its 2009 eruption. Photo by David Sischo.

At this time, Pagan Island is still being proposed as a site for mining and for temporary “storage” of tsunami debris. The Tsunami that destroyed Fukushima and killed thousands of people in Japan was an enormous tragedy. There is no reason to add to that tragedy by moving this debris to Pagan Island and harming its natural beauty and biodiversity. Even if scientists’ campaign to stop the debris from being dumped on Pagan prevails, the threat to Pagan is not gone. There is still money to be made from Pagan Island, whether it is from mining of pozzolan or another type of lease.

There is little financial profit in making Pagan Island a refuge for wildlife or returning it to the native people who still think of it as home. Larger, richer countries have a history of taking advantage of poorer island nations, from the nuclear bomb tests at Bikini Atoll to overharvesting of Kiribas tuna by illegal fisherman. It is rare that these nations are sufficiently compensated for damage to their environment – if it is even possible to determine a price for that kind of damage. Like many islands in the Pacific, many people have never heard of Northern Marianas Islands, let alone the Pagan Island. Which is too bad, because they really are beautiful and unique. The next time you drive across a bridge or see cement being poured for a new building, think of Pagan.

For more information on and photos of Pagan Island, visit savepaganisland.org.

Alexis Rudd About the Author: Alexis Rudd is a graduate student at the University of Hawaii, where she spends her time using underwater sound to learn about the distribution and behavior of dolphins and whales. Her interests also include acoustics and seabird biology. She received her B.S. in Biology at the University of Puget Sound. When she’s not being a student, Alexis enjoys snorkeling, hiking and photography. Alexis blogs about whales, dolphins, sound and the sea at Sounding The Sea. You can also follow her on twitter @SoundingTheSea Follow on Twitter @SoundingTheSea.

The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.






Comments 14 Comments

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  1. 1. saipanwalt 3:20 pm 06/13/2012

    Hi Alexia,
    Thanks for this article bringing attention to this issue. As a resident of Saipan, I would offer, however, that when you say in your article:

    “To understand why Marianas Islands residents might want to lease their land to another country as a dumping site…”
    or, when you say:

    “This poverty is why they have considered leasing their limited land to a Japanese Oil Company. Or to a private company. Or to the US Navy as a training site…”

    it should be noted that these schemes are typically NEVER proposed by the residents. They are proposed by politicians who act independently of the will of the people. In fact, once the residents uncovered this particular idea, the residents themselves—those here and abroad–quickly mobilized to oppose it:

    1. There is a
    “Say NO to Dumping Japan’s Trash on Pagan” Facebook page that has quickly grown to over 4,500 members in just a few weeks.
    http://www.facebook.com/groups/400946593259416/431150196905722/

    2. There is CHANGE.ORG “Don’t Turn Pagan Island into Garbage Dump” petition http://www.change.org/petitions/don-t-turn-pagan-island-into-a-garbage-dump
    that now has 2,692 signatures as of today. (Saipan’s population is only about 50,000)

    Yes, Saipan is a beautiful island. Many have come, gone, but hold it and their time here very dear to their hearts. More activism is ongoing.

    Thanks again for spreading the information.

    Walt F.J. Goodridge
    Destination Saipan, Inc.

    p.s. As you mentioned the garment factory era on Saipan, I’ll share that Iam also the co-author of the only first-hand account of Saipan garment factory conditions entitled “Chicken Feathers and Garlic Skin: Diary of a Chinese Garment Factory Girl on Saipan by Chun Yu Wang, your readers may learn more at http://www.saipanfactorygirl.com

    Link to this
  2. 2. Fanandala 3:45 pm 06/13/2012

    The Colosseum or Pantheon in Greece??

    Link to this
  3. 3. Fanandala 3:48 pm 06/13/2012

    Is pozzolan still being mined? After all we get the fly ash from coal burning power stations for free

    Link to this
  4. 4. SwissSushi 5:17 pm 06/13/2012

    The Roman building displayed in this story is the Pantheon. I was just there in April. IT has a domed roof. The Coloseo of Rome has no dome, no roof. I’m shocked this got past the editor and fact checkers. I definitely expect more from this publication. I’m looking for a job, if you would like for me to do editorial and/or fact checks for you, I know how.

    Link to this
  5. 5. SoundingTheSea 12:06 am 06/14/2012

    Hi Swiss Sushi. Thanks for pointing out the errors. As a guest writer for SciAm, I get paid exactly $0 and do this in my free time because I think the issues are important. Thank you for pointing out the error in identification – I took that picture of the Pantheon in 2006 (in Rome), and I should have labeled it correctly in the caption. Did you find the article interesting, outside of oversights in labeling?

    Link to this
  6. 6. SoundingTheSea 12:15 am 06/14/2012

    Hi Walt,

    I actually had a look at your website when I was researching this post, and it was very interesting. I really wish that I had thought to take some photos of the old factories last time I was in Saipan, but maybe next time. Hopefully I will be able to visit again, because your island is extremely beautiful, with fascinating history and wonderful people. As far as your comment, I think I was trying to keep my language as neutral as possible about the opinions of the people of Saipan, because I don’t feel remotely qualified to speak for you (which is why I am so happy to see your comment on this blog). Thank you so much for your input! I would love to hear more from other Saipan residents.

    Alexis

    Link to this
  7. 7. saipanwalt 1:59 am 06/14/2012

    Hey Alexis,
    My apologies for the typo in your name in my original comment. Is Scientific American (or are you) able to correct it?

    I’ve shared your article with the activists and organizers of the petition and facebook page who are actual, born and raised former residents of Pagan.

    Great article, again, by the way. I never knew about the pozzolan use and history.

    I do have more photos and videos from Saipan’s garment industry should you be interested. Feel free to contact me through the factory girl site.

    Walt
    p.s. by the way, the guestblog09@sciam.com email address in the Guest Blog contact box does not appear to be functioning.

    Link to this
  8. 8. SaipanCrazy 8:32 am 06/17/2012

    Just a couple of comments for your consideration:

    (1) “Another species that finds refuge on Pagan is the endemic Micronesian Megapode, which is extinct on the populated islands of Tinian, Rota, Saipan and Guam.”
    This species is not “extinct on the populated islands of Tinian, Rota, Saipan and Guam”; don’t you think “extirpated” is a better word, especially for Guam and Rota?

    Megapode are found in the Marpi and possibly Naftan areas of Saipan. Megapode have been recorded from Tinian on several occasions; however more surveys are needed to determine whether the island supports a viable population. Another interesting tidbit of information is that Megapode are living on Farallon de Medinilla – an active US military bombing target, as well as most of the Northern (Mariana) Islands.

    The Micronesian Megapode is actually two subspecies. The Marianas subspecies (laperouse) is listed by the ESA as endangered. The second subspecies (senex; or possible species) occurs in the Palau Islands. Therefore, the Micronesian Megapode is not endemic to the Marianas archipelago, nor is it an island endemic.

    (2) “The threatened tree snail Partula gibba….”
    The ESA does not recognize this species as threatened or endangered – it is a “Candidate Species.”

    IUCN classifies P. gibba as Critically Endangered – the IUCN is a completely different classification scheme that evaluates the status of species as threatened/endangered from a global perspective. IUCN has absolutely no regulatory authority in the US. When discussing US wildlife issues, caution should be used when claiming threatened or endangered status – either specify which T&E classification system you are using or focus solely on the ESA.

    Link to this
  9. 9. SoundingTheSea 9:31 pm 06/18/2012

    1) “In ecology, extinction is often used informally to refer to local extinction, in which a species ceases to exist in the chosen area of study, but still exists elsewhere. This phenomenon is also known as extirpation.” -Wikipedia

    I don’t think extirpated is a better word, because I am writing for a general audience, rather than experts in biology. “Extirpated” is a word that I would consider jargon. The point of writing is to make oneself understood. I could have qualified “extinct” as “locally extinct,” but that would have been redundant since I specified the locations.

    If you find more current information on whether a viable (“functionally extant?”) population of Megapodes is on Tinian, please pass on the information. I wasn’t able to find any.

    2) Megapode are endemic to Micronesia (just as ‘apapane are endemic to Hawaii but are found on multiple islands within the island chain). If I had said “single-island endemic,” that would mean the Micronesian Megapode are found only on one island, which is not the case.

    3) Isn’t endangered species law fun (sarcasm)?The majority of the species that went extinct in the first 21 years of the ESA were never even listed as endangered.

    http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/2012/04/16/singing-snails-and-killer-whales-parallels-in-conservation/

    Link to this
  10. 10. SaipanCrazy 8:14 am 06/20/2012

    (1) “In ecology, extinction is often used informally to refer to local extinction, in which a species ceases to exist in the chosen area of study, but still exists elsewhere. This phenomenon is also known as extirpation.” –Wikipedia

    As a student of the sciences, I can’t believe you chose Wikipedia as a defense in your use of the word “extinct” in your blog. The Wikipedia justification will be given the credibility it deserves – none.

    (2) “I don’t think extirpated is a better word, because I am writing for a general audience, rather than experts in biology. “Extirpated” is a word that I would consider jargon. The point of writing is to make oneself understood. I could have qualified “extinct” as “locally extinct,” but that would have been redundant since I specified the locations.”

    It is unfortunate that you believe that the “general audience” is not sufficiently astute to distinguish the difference between “extinct” and “extirpation”. I believe you are doing a disservice to the general audience and to yourself by not be factually correct about the issue(s) you writing about – but that’s just my opinion.

    (3) “If you find more current information on whether a viable (“functionally extant?”) population of Megapodes is on Tinian, please pass on the information. I wasn’t able to find any.”

    Unfortunately, I wasn’t able to fact check the following information, but it should be sufficient to get you started. Megapodes have been detected on Tinian, albeit in small numbers, during 1985, 1995, 2000, 2001, 2004, 2005, and as recently as 2009. This is why I qualified my response that additional surveys are needed to see if a viable population actually exists on Tinian. BTW, you won’t find the following references in Wikipedia.

    Anuradha Gupta. 2007. Proposed Important Bird Areas in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Prepared by Anuradha Gupta (UH at Manoa) for Birdlife International (Suva, Fiji), report dated August 2007.

    Cruz, J., L. Arriola, N. Johnson, and G. Beauprez. 2000. Wildlife and vegetation surveys in the Tinian proposed conservation area. Technical Report No. 1. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Division of Fish and Wildlife, Saipan.

    O’Daniel, D. and S. Krueger. 1999. Recent sightings of the Micronesian Megapode on Tinian, Mariana Islands. Micronesica 31: 301–307.

    Vogt, S. 2008. Micronesian Megapode (Megapodius laperouse laperouse) surveys on Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. U.S. Navy, NAVFAC Pacific. Honolulu, HI.

    Wiles, G. J., R. E. Beck, and A. B. Amerson. 1987. The Micronesian Megapode on Tinian, Mariana Islands. ‘Elepaio 47: 1–3.

    Witteman, G. J. 2001. A quantitative survey and inventory of the Micronesian Megapode and its habitat on Tinian, CNMI. University of Guam, Division of Natural Resources, Mangilao.

    I believe there are other references and/or documented detections in some of the annual reports published by the local Division of Fish and Wildlife office.

    (4) ‘Megapode are endemic to Micronesia (just as ‘apapane are endemic to Hawaii but are found on multiple islands within the island chain). If I had said “single-island endemic,” that would mean the Micronesian Megapode are found only on one island, which is not the case.”

    Recognizing that the megapode is endemic to Micronesia is a fact that was unfortunately left out of the blog. The blog discussion mis-leads the reader to believe that Pagan Island is one of the last remaining holdouts for the species. This can’t be further from the truth. Unfortunately, I get the impression that this blog posting is no more than an advocacy piece for
    savepaganisland.org petition site.

    I understand that you are writing under the auspices of Scientific American, however just because you don’t get paid for writing the blog and you are writing down to a “general audience” is not an excuse to justify inaccurate or mis-leading content.

    Link to this
  11. 11. SoundingTheSea 6:50 pm 06/21/2012

    Some resources for the use of the term “local extinction” other than Wikipedia. These resources include publications from the National Academy of Sciences, the Society for Systematic Biologists, the Society for Conservation Biology, and the American Academy for the Advancement of Science:

    Genetic variability and effective population size when local extinction and recolonization of subpopulations are frequent. PNAS November 1, 1980 vol. 77 no. 11 6710-6714. http://www.pnas.org/content/77/11/6710.full.pdf

    Maximum Likelihood Inference of Geographic Range Evolution by Dispersal, Local Extinction, and Cladogenesis. Syst Biol (2008) 57 (1): 4-14. http://maen.huh.harvard.edu/~rree/reprints/Ree_and_Smith-2008-SystBio.pdf

    Tropical Forest Fragmentation and the Local Extinction of Understory Birds in the Eastern Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Conservation Biology Volume 5, Issue 1, pages 67–78, March 1991. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1523-1739.1991.tb00389.x/abstract

    Community Diversity: Relative Roles of Local and Regional Processes. Science 9 January 1987: Vol. 235 no. 4785 pp. 167-171 DOI: 10.1126/science.235.4785.167. http://labs.bio.unc.edu/Peet/courses/bio255_2003f/papers/ricklefs1987.pdf

    Link to this
  12. 12. SoundingTheSea 8:38 pm 06/21/2012

    Comprehensive wildlife conservation strategy report from 2005 refers to Micronesian Megapodes as “endemic:” http://www.sprep.org/att/IRC/eCOPIES/Countries/Commonwealth_of_Northern_Marianas/3.pdf See page 84.

    Most recent bird surveys (2008 – 4 years ago) on Tinian Island did not see any Megapodes. http://pacificscience.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/pac-sci-early-view-66-3-3.pdf. This document summarizes the megapode sightings in Saipan, with confirmed sightings up to 1992 (page 19): http://kixproductions.com/fom/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Biologial-Assessment-Homestead-Marpi.pdf According to this document, the total population of Micronesian megapodes in the Northern Marianas was estimated to be about 1500 birds in 1992 (10 years ago).

    Link to this
  13. 13. SaipanCrazy 8:50 am 06/22/2012

    (1) You wrote: “Some resources for the use of the term “local extinction” other than Wikipedia. These resources include publications from the National Academy of Sciences, the Society for Systematic Biologists, the Society for Conservation Biology, and the American Academy for the Advancement of Science:” + plus references

    Very good – there is science beyond Wikipedia!

    I think you are missing the point of this argument. Perhaps we should re-read the one-sentence paragraph you claim about the Micronesian Megapode – “Another species that finds refuge on Pagan is the endemic Micronesian Megapode, which is extinct on the populated islands of Tinian, Rota, Saipan and Guam.”

    If you actually believe those references support your argument in some way, then so be it….

    (2) You write: “Comprehensive wildlife conservation strategy report from 2005 refers to Micronesian Megapodes as “endemic:” http://www.sprep.org/att/IRC/eCOPIES/Countries/Commonwealth_of_Northern_Marianas/3.pdf See page 84.

    Very good. Did you read the first page carefully?

    The entire discussion of the Marianas Megapode in this document is limited ONLY to the subspecies that occurs in the Mariana archipelago (Megapodius laperouse laperouse) …. Look at the top of page 84 and you will see the species (or in this case subspecies) identified for subsequent discussion – Megapodius laperouse laperouse. The subspecies senex (which occurs in the Palau Islands) is not a part of the discussion. Therefore, in the context of the document, the Micronesian Megapode subspecies (laperouse) is correctly identified as a Marianas endemic….

    (3) You write: “Most recent bird surveys (2008 – 4 years ago) on Tinian Island did not see any Megapodes. http://pacificscience.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/pac-sci-early-view-66-3-3.pdf.”

    Very good. As an aside, the megapode will only be properly documented on Tinian if specific surveys are conducted in correct habitat. If I’m not mistaken, the Camp et. al., surveys are more oriented toward an island-wide characterization of avifauna. However, this doesn’t diminish the fact that they didn’t detect megapode. Interestingly and relative to our discussion, is the fact that the authors pointed out on page 11 their use of point-transect surveys may not be appropriate for megapode. This is especially true if the transect lines do not cross native forest habitat – which I don’t believe they do (needs to be fact checked).

    (4) You write: “This document summarizes the megapode sightings in Saipan, with confirmed sightings up to 1992 (page 19): http://kixproductions.com/fom/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Biologial-Assessment-Homestead-Marpi.pdf

    Not sure what point you are trying to make here. Not only does this document summarize Saipan megapode sightings up to 1992 (on page 19), it also confirms the presence of megapode (yet again) on their Marpi project site in 2008 (see Figure 6, pg. 12).

    One should be very careful when citing Biological Assessments….

    This banter has been stimulating at the least. However, it’s time for me to go. Good luck in you studies.

    Link to this
  14. 14. alawrence37 11:13 am 01/3/2014

    That bat is adorable! A friend of mine does land surveying for http://templetonlandsurveying.com and found one for me once. It was the cutest little baby bat ever.

    Link to this

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