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# Pacific Rim Physics (Part 1): A Rocket Punch is a Boeing 747 to the Face

The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.

What better way to “cancel the apocalypse” than to use rockets to accelerate a million and a half pounds of steel squarely into an inter-dimensional monster’s face?

Screengrab Credit: Warner Bros. Pictures

Pacific Rim—a science fiction love letter to the giant monster movies of old—came out swinging two weekends ago amid the squees of geeks everywhere (though no squees were heard at the box office). Its story was a rather simple fanboy or girl fairy tale—giant robots fight giant monsters—and the action was kaiju-crushingly intense. In fact, if you were like me, you might have even fist-bumped the screen when you saw a Anime-style rocket fist deliver a mountain of metal to a snarling kaiju’s face. It was so cool that we are required to science it.

Just how much power does to take to make a kaiju crumble? Keep cheering, because that particular punch was like taking a Boeing 747 to the face.

Rock ‘Em, Sock ‘Em Robots

Like how we describe car crashes and TNT explosions, Joules—a measure of energy—are the best units to use when calculating what an elbow rocket can deliver. More specifically, we want the kinetic energy (measured in Joules) of the punch in order to make comparisons. All we need is the mass of the jaeger arm and the velocity of the punch.

The first thing we know is that jaegers are huge; like 100 feet taller than the Statue of Liberty huge. And with great height comes great weight. The main robot of Pacific Rim, Gipsy Danger, is said to be 7,080 tons*—half the weight of all the trash produced in New York City in one day. Based on this weight and some other assumptions about how much an average human arm weighs in comparisons to full body weight—other nerdy engineers like myself have estimated the jaeger rocket arm to be about 1.5 million pounds.

Despite their enormous mechanical power, jaegers aren’t that fast. Part of this is for cinematic effect—slower than normal motion gives the illusion of weight to the robots. But their speed is also fairly average because the robots’ motion is based on human pilots who physically move them around. The average person can’t punch very fast—maybe 15 to 30 miles per hour—so it’s understandable that you might put huge rockets on your robot to help KO a kaiju.

Read More: Pacific Rim Physics (Part 2): In a Nuclear Explosion Bubble at the Bottom of the Ocean

At full burn in the clip, the jaeger Gipsy Danger’s fist hits the kaiju’s face not much faster than an average human punch, but velocity matters. If going 50% faster than a good human punch at the time of impact, the 1.5 million pound arm would be carrying 125,000,000 Joules of kinetic energy. Being on the receiving end of a jaeger rocket punch would then be like getting hit in the face with a Boeing 747 going 60 miles per hour—the same as typical runway exit speeds, except that the exit is to your face.

Screengrab Credit: Warner Bros. Pictures

A rocket-powered punch isn’t a crazy science fiction scheme either. Kinetic energy is more affected by velocity than mass. In the equations, the velocity term is squared—or multiplied by itself—meaning that doubling the speed will quadruple the kinetic energy (while doubling the mass only doubles the energy). The elbow rocket then allows Gispsy Danger to punch far beyond its weight (but why it didn’t use its swords the whole time is beyond me.)

The thrust required to accelerate the arm is huge too. It would be equivalent to a Saturn V rocket, meaning that the jaeger could theoretically throw a one-kilogram object directly into space with the energy behind its punch. Of course, spending so much time near the sea, a jaeger could tee up a kaiju hit with a similar kinetic energy as the rocket punch by slapping the kaiju in the face with a blue whale (yes, I did the math).

BONUS SCIENCE: Could a Kaiju Fly Into Space?

Credit: Warner Bros. Pictures

Right after we see the jaeger Gipsy Danger punch the kaiju codenamed Leatherback in the face with what is effectively a taxiing 747, the kaiju codenamed Otachi spreads its wings to carry the jaeger into the upper atmosphere (presumably to drop it back down again). Before it gets too far, Gispy unsheathes a giant sword and triumphantly removes one of Otachi’s wings, slaying the great beast.

This again begs a nerdy question: Can you simply flap some wings hard enough and get into the upper atmosphere?

In 1975, a vulture with a 10-foot wingspan—an Rüppell’s griffon—was sucked into an airplane engine at nearly 38,000 feet. If the flying kaiju is similarly proportioned, this gives us some idea of how high it could go. But looking again at the film (I’ve seen it three times now), we can clearly see the curvature of the Earth. In fact, there’s more space in the shot than surface. A better estimate of the height might be the greatest free-fall in human history—the drop of Felix Baumgartner. This brave man rocketed towards Earth starting from 128,000 feet in the atmosphere. Either limit puts the jaeger-carrying kaiju squarely in the stratosphere.

But unless the monstrous kaiju can also supply a monstrous amount of force—like a Saturn V rocket—or has wings with gargantuan surface are, there is no way the kaiju could get so high.

The only way to fly is to fight. With each downward thrust of a wing air is pushed down, and therefore the air pushes back up on the wing. This is fine in the lower atmosphere where air is dense, but it gets thinner the higher you go. There is less air to push against and so you must fight harder and harder until flight ultimately fails. Not only is there hardly anything to push on up there, but there is hardly anything to breathe. Like the baby kaiju choking to death in mere seconds, the flying Otachi wouldn’t make it very far.

Either way, the kaiju doesn’t need to get into the stratosphere to execute a successful jaeger drop (or bomb, if you will). Something the size of the Statue of Liberty, if dropped, will reach terminal velocity in much less than 100,000 feet.

*The weight I used was based on the original blueprints released before the movie came out. The wikia for the film now has a revised weight that is substantially smaller. I went with the original blueprint for the sake of nerd purity.

About the Author: Kyle Hill is a freelance science writer and communicator who specializes in finding the secret science in your favorite fandom. Follow on Twitter @Sci_Phile.

The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.

 Previous: Nerds and Words: Week 29 MoreBut Not Simpler Next: Pacific Rim Physics (Part 2): In a Nuclear Explosion Bubble at the Bottom of the Ocean

Rights & Permissions

1. 1. SayuriUliana 11:27 am 07/24/2013

Apart from the gaffe of mentioning a “Gundam-style rocket fist” (since the entire Gundam franchise from 0079 to AGE doesn’t really have rocket punches as we know them), that was a rather entertaining read, especially on Otachi’s rather incredible flight.

2. 2. OgreMk5 12:44 pm 07/24/2013

I loved this movie, in spite of the issues. Honestly, why not just mount the plasma gun on a tank or a warship or something? And haven’t they ever heard of nukes? If there is one time a nuke is an acceptable weapon, it’s when a trans-dimensional monster begins to eat San Francisco.

But I still enjoyed the movie… a lot.

3. 3. Xopher425 8:18 pm 07/24/2013

Great points. Loved this movie, so much so that I didn’t even notice all the lapses in logic.

+1 OgreMk5 for “If there is one time a nuke is an acceptable weapon, it’s when a trans-dimensional monster begins to eat San Francisco.”

4. 4. sanman 9:00 pm 07/24/2013

Right after the injured Otachi drops Gypsy Danger, we hear the computer GlaDOS calling out an altitude of 50,000 feet and falling. If a vulture with 10-foot wingspan could make 38,000 feet, then it doesn’t seem unreasonable for Otachi to make 50,000 feet.

I really enjoyed the colossal spectacle of Pacific Rim, and would love to see a sequel.

5. 5. naishd 8:20 am 07/25/2013

OgreMk5: a nuke was deployed against the first Kaiju and killed it. Thereafter, the idea is that Kaiju attacks become too frequent to allow constant use of nuclear weapons.

Darren Naish (Tetrapod Zoology)

6. 6. Kyle Hill in reply to Kyle Hill 9:16 am 07/25/2013

Great point!

7. 7. Elio Campitelli 12:59 pm 07/25/2013

Awesome!

8. 8. cas8228 1:35 pm 07/25/2013

Great movie and great article! I don’t care about the realism, it is a fun movie and its even more fun to talk about the science.

Wanted to add to the convo, but first my background. I have two black belts in Shotokan karate as well as in muay thai. I also have a degree in mechanical engineering with an emphasis in robotics.

When you throw a punch correctly you cannot only add the mass of the arm or fist. A correct strike comes from the entire body, first foremost and probably most importantly from the feet and legs.

The actual mass of the punch would be drastically larger due to adding in the inertia of the entire body. Momentum carried from the feet of something that large would be ridiculous and awesome!!!

Furthermore, a correct punch adds angular velocity to its power through the twisting of the fist at the correct time. When you add in the angular twist (w) to the straight velocity (V) you once again drastically increase the energy being delivered to the target.

Overall, if everything was technically perfect. This strike would be many MANY more than one Boeing hitting a target.

Awesome!!!!!!

9. 9. Mad_Dog 11:38 pm 07/29/2013

1. The Pilots were not average people, they were very physically fit and were trained in various martial arts and fighting styles, thus their punches would have been even more powerful than the 15-30mph punching speed you indicated. Cherno Alpha (Russianr) even had piston fists that could deliver a powerful punch even if the arm doesn’t move. So I think that Gypsy’s rocket punch was more powerful than a 747 at 60mph. I would put it around 90, 100 mph tops.

2. Also if you didn’t notice Jaegers were getting faster as technology progressed. Chrisom Typhoon (Chinese) and Striker (AUS) were the fastest Jaegers. Striker being the only Generation 5 was VERY fast in battle as seen in it’s fight in Sydney and Sprinting in “knee deep” water in Hong Kong.

3. You can see the curvature of earth from 2,000 ft on a clear day. You don’t have to get so high to see it.

4. Gyspy cut off Otachi’s wing AND HEAD if you’d watch.

5. Gypsy’s computer said they were at 50,000, more than a third higher than MT. Everest. of course you’d lose oxygen quickly that way.

6. While i will agree that air would be thinner at that height, with Otachi’s massive wingspan “she” could reach that height quickly, even while carrying Gypsy. so in fact Otachi never made it to the upper atmosphere.

7. And the fight took place AT NIGHT, of course you’d see stars at any height then.

10. 10. fugee13 3:37 pm 09/8/2013

Travis Beacham, the screenwriter for the movie, has a tumblr and spends much of his time answering questions people have about the movie. He has stated that the reason they never used the sword is because kaiju blood is toxic and the weapons they use most are designed to minimize the spilling of toxic kaiju blood everywhere. The plasma canons cauterize the wound at the same time it inflicts it, so there’s not much bleeding. But a sword would let blood spill everywhere so it’s a very last resort kind of weapon.

11. 11. Kyle Hill in reply to Kyle Hill 6:19 pm 09/8/2013

Exactly what I suspected, thanks!

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