September 2, 2014 | 25
Change is hard. We meet it with some trepidation and skepticism. This is certainly true when it comes to technology. Each wave of technological advancement has changed the economy; and in each age where it has done so, the there has been a ripple effect. For example, did you know that one of the reasons newsboys were so prolific in New York City in the 19th-century was due to a decline in artisan trades? The Industrial Revolution’s factories and sweatshops reduced opportunities for apprenticeships as workshops and crafting disciplines disappeared or were absorbed by progress. In the history of technologically modern nations, we have gone from defining work in terms of agriculture, manufacturing, and management. Each labor shift has replaced its predecessors with the help of increasingly mechanized practices.
We’re in the midst of the next technological shift which places robotics and artificial intelligence (AI) at the heart of many industries and daily experiences. While we can’t predict the future, it does seem highly likely that these types of technologies will continue to expand. Is it so difficult to imagine a time when surveillance drones are responsible for our safety? Or when robots are responsible for stocking shelves and bagging our groceries? We have a prototype for self-driving cars, and already have automated customer service and self-checkout options. We use technology to communicate with each other—even when we’re sitting next to each other. So is it so difficult to imagine a world where labor is increasingly delegated to networked, automated AI and robotic devices? Can this happen by 2025?
This is the question that Pew Research Center recently put to 1,896 technology builders and analysts who opted-in to a survey that produced the report AI, Robotics, and the Future of Jobs. Roughly half of these experts (48%) believe that with time robotic and AI applications will displace the majority of workers with dystopic consequences: widening income gaps and increasing numbers of unemployable people will lead to widespread social disorder. The other half (52%) maintains that while robots and digital agents will assume a more prominent place in the workforce, new jobs and industries will emerge that will help maintain employment opportunities.
There latter group has a reason to be hopeful. In 2013, labor pool estimates included the following jobs that did not exist in 1999:
The increasing specialization within networking reveals the emerging complexities of network and communication systems. For all the power of computing networks, they still—at this time—require human engineers. The need for these roles has grown out of our interaction with technology, and it is this sort of response that may drive subsequent employment opportunities. Logisticians are another such example: in a business environment that relies on global distribution networks, they’re responsible for coordinating the process from manufacturing to delivery. No small feat when you have to get something from Chennai to New York City by a promised deadline, and only possible in an environment where the distribution needs to have the widest possible reach at the lowest possible cost.
But it’s not surprising the respondents are fairly evenly split. Their arguments are the objections that have graced every major economic shift. “What about the people?,” we cry—and that’s a question not to be taken lightly when as we stand at a crossroads in our history. For those who believe that we’re facing economic displacement as technology becomes more widespread and integrated with everyday experiences, the following themes emerged in their discussion:
Among this group, there is little that won’t be touched by automation and robotics: sports, music, craft brewing, and the fine arts may be all that will be exempt. And this vision leads us to a commoditization of personal interaction. Having one-to-one contact with someone may be a service offered for a price, and only in a specific instances.
If this picture seems bleak, don’t despair just yet: remember, 52% of respondents believed that not too much would change. We’ve been down this path before, according to this group, and we are the ones who drive innovation and maintain technological advancement. So there will always be room for an innovative workforce. The themes that emerged from these responses included:
Both groups agree that work will change. The jobs we hold now will not be the jobs we hold tomorrow. And with that will come a shift—as it has come before—of what “work” is. This is already starting to happen. For example, one of the predictions holds that we’ll experience more leisure time. This is already possible thanks to technologies that allow us to conduct business remotely, however for it to be successful, we’re the ones who have to be ready to let go. Employers who never thought telecommuting would have a place in their workforce are now embracing it because it may save them in overhead in the long term. But the truth is that they can no longer hold to that old standard of what a worker is and does. Today’s workforce often negotiates some degree of flexibility, and all but the lowest-paying jobs tend to reap those benefits.
We’re still holding onto the industrial concept of a “job”: We go somewhere and perform a task in exchange for funds. We’re engaged in the commoditization of time and labor. Make no mistake, we’re likely still going to need to buy essentials, but we may be getting those funds from different places. Work may not mean a 40-hour week. Work may not mean assembly line production. And work may not mean up at the crack of dawn to attend to the livestock. The work tied to these types of trades is already changing, but we don’t have to be run over by the promise of technology. Could the spread of AI and robotics invites the return of artisanal crafts and barter-based trade? No where is this clearer than in the DIY movement, which thrives on collaboration and leverages open-source technology to power small production endeavors.
We might not be ready to rethink the concept of work, but it’s happening around us.
What are your thoughts on the future of work? Are you experiencing change in your industry due to the adoption of technology? Let’s talk about it.
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Creeping Connectivity: Work and Life in a Hyper-connected World
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